By Cheryl Morgan
Who speaks for the Indian? Amazingly, his cause is almost without truth.” John Keats wrote this in 1964.
“Under the assumed inevitable defeat and triumph of White man. The Indian was crushed, broken, disorganized, externally and internally, they gave up the fight. He knew no one would listen to him. Break the silence imposed on him and us and our children: ‘Let freedom ring, the truth be known’” (Steiner).
“We need to unite all the races and both of the sexes if we are going to be strong and the Sacred Hoop is to be mended, turning towards each other, instead of away from one another” (Barefoot Windwalker, Bodawadmi, www).
“The rights of man come not from the generosity of the State, but from the hand of God” (John F. Kennedy).
“The present events with counsels leave observations and conclusions to the liberty and faculty of every man’s judgement” (Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning).
“A morsel of genuine history is a thing so rare as to always be valuable. It only informs of what bad government is” (Thomas Jefferson).
“This book tells a part of the Indian history of the Great Lakes, laying the groundwork for further study. One can delve further into every area of culture and history and gain a more complete picture of these peoples. Due to time and space constraints, I have not been able to include a more detailed history. Each source will further enhance this study if one will search it out.
This book is a starting point to gathering more indigenous history and early St. Clair County history. Many of you have information within your own studies, libraries, public records, family records, and oral history that tells another piece of the puzzle of the Great Lakes Indians History”. I would appreciate any input to fill in the missing pieces. Together we can create understanding where there is great ignorance. American Holocaust by David E. Stannard, written in 1992, is a real eye-opener, and I recommend reading it for the serious study of history” (Morgan).
“To learn the true story of America, we must search for it in our own backyards. Nowhere in the country is this more clearly shown than in the St. Clair River District, for its story is the story of Michigan, and the great Northwest Territory is, in fact, the story of America” (Mitts).
“The Indians survived our open intention of wiping them out, and since the tide turned, they have even weathered our good intentions toward them, which can be much more deadly” (John Steinbeck America and Americans).
“The Native American experience continues to evolve. It is a story that has not ended. The Colonial Era is still here alive and well, and so are the Indians” (Morgan).
“Concealment of the historical truth is a crime against the people” (Gen. Petro G. Grigorenko. Samizdat letter to a History Journal, 1975 USSR).
“He that cannot reason is a fool. He that will not is a bigot. He that dare not is a slave” (Andrew Carnegie).
It has been a very emotional and shocking journey through the early history of the indigenous people of St. Clair County, Michigan and the Northwest Territory. I have survived the torturous trail through it all and will be forever changed by these people and the light of truth now exposed. May we be kind to one another and honest. May we, too, catch a vision of a United Nation with love for our brother. May we appreciate and learn from one another, gleaning the good for all mankind, learning from the past and its flaws, to see a new future where love and goodness flourish.
Cheryl Morgan, 2015
True patriotism is based on knowledge and understanding rather than on ignorant prejudice. By learning how far we have come during the preceding centuries. We should be able better to chart our course for the future. Recognition for past mistakes can help us to avoid making the same ones a second or a third time” (Clever Bald, Michigan in 4 Centuries, 1954).
November is Native American Heritage Month.
Natives know that optimism is the key to good health. Worry makes you sick, as do bad thoughts. Replace them with happiness and optimism, and you shall live a long and healthy life (Terri Jean, 365 days of Walking the Red Road).
“Without freedom of thought, there can be no such thing as wisdom, and no such thing as public liberty without freedom of speech” (Benjamin Franklin).
“Lethargy is the forerunner of death to public liberty” (Thomas Jefferson Letters).
Humankind has not woven the web of life; we are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together, all things connect (Chief Seattle).
The most helpful books on Ojibwe history are the following:
The Archaeological Atlas of Michigan, Hindsdale (1928), Michigan Room SCC Library, Clark Historical Library, Mt. Pleasant Mi., Ziibiwing Cultural Center, Mt. Pleasant, MI. Many other places also have this book.
The Atlas of Great Lakes Indians, Tanner, Helen H. This is a great history of the Great Lakes tribes. Helen was an authority to the government and courts on locations of the Tribes, and their histories.
Diba Jimooyung, Telling our Story, Saginaw Chippewa history. This is an excellent source of Ojibway history.
The Plains of Aamjiwnang by David Plain, descendant of Little Thunder, who made his home at the foot of Lake Huron and Black River. Plain has written six books about Native culture and history.
The Ojibwe of Southern Ontario, Schmaltz, Peter. This book answers many questions and corrects many false ideas. It is taken from historical facts and oral tradition.
The Soul of the Indian, Indian Boyhood, and From the Deep Woods to Civilization, Charles Eastman’s writings, are a wonderful source of Ojibwe culture. He was a prolific writer who lived in Southern Ontario and Detroit.
Ojibwe Culture. Francis Densmore was an expert on Ojibwe culture.
Panther in the Sky, Thom, James A., NY: Ballantine Books. Early History of the Northwest Territory, Ohio and British Indian wars, excellent history of Tecumseh’s life.
MSU, MSU Libraries, Map Library, scanned maps of Michigan. These old maps give a lot of history of town and place names.
Marilyn Hebner, President of the St. Clair County Family History Group, was a great help to me in researching. Her friendship and encouragement are much appreciated. Marilyn and Diana Hebner’s research on immigration was very helpful. I would also like to thank others at SCC Family History Group for their encouragement.
My family: son, Tom, and daughter-in-law, and my grandkids who helped a low-tech grandma with the Technical World. My Husband Tom, who was supportive. My sisters-in-laws for their encouragement.
Friends: Pat Walker, Lynn Kamendat, Gail Terpening, Bob and Margie Archer, and others who were there to encourage.
The many people at libraries and archives, and Anita Herd, at Ziibiwing Cultural Center. Thank you for all your help in accessing research publications.
Joyce Reid, for all her kindness and support. Joe Greaux for the 2014 interview. David Plain for his help and work in making known the local history. Mike Connel for his review of Chapter 7, French, British, English and Americans.
My Editor Sara Constantino for her wise work in making the book professional.
Thank you all for your part in bringing this work to fruition.
Andreas. History of St. Clair County, Michigan. University of Michigan, 1884. Quod.lib.umich.edu
Armstrong, Virginia Irving. I Have Spoken: Indian Oratory. Swallow Press, 1971. ISBN – 10: 0804005303, 13: 978-0804005302
Askin, John. Papers Vol. 1, 1747-1795, 1928; Vol. 2, 1796-1820, 1931, includes Father Dennison, Biographies of Early Detroit and Canada. Milo Quaife/Burton Historical Collection.
Bald, Clever. Michigan in Four Centuries. Brown, 1954. www
Banai, Edward Benton. The Seven Fires, The Mishomis Book, and The Voice of the Ojibway. UMN Press, 1988. 9780816673827
Barnes, John T., honorary Chippewa Chief. Lambton, 1967.
Beardslee, Lois. The Modern Indian. 1995.
Belfy, Phil. Three Fires Unity: The Anishinabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands. University of Nebraska Press, 2011.
Benz, Williamson, and Ekdahl. Diba Jimooyung, Telling Our Story: A History of the Saginaw Ojibwe Anishinabek. Saginaw Chippewa, Mt. Pleasant, MI: Ziibiwing Cultural Society, 2005. 978-0-9672331-1-6
Berkhoffer, Robert F., Jr. The White Man’s Indian. NY: Vintage Books, Random House, 1979.
Blackbird, Andrew. The History of the Ojibwe Indian. www
Bonhomme, Draper. Papers. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Brakeman, Nancy. Remembrances of Mrs. Peter Brakeman. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Burton Historical Library. Detroit, Michigan.
Burton, Clarence. 1896, Cadillac Village or Detroit under Cadillac, 1853-1932. Hathi Trust. Burton, Clarence. Beginnings of Michigan, Hathi Trust, and the City of Detroit, 1701-1922. S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1922. www
Cameron, Herman E. Memorial Foundation, “Kah Wam Da Meh” (“We See Each Other”). 1988. Jean Frazier.
Chaput Collection, Papers, Indian Place Names, Michigan Archives, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI.
Cleland, Charles E. Rites of Conquest. University of Michigan Press, 1992.
Clifton, James A., George L. Cornell, and James McClurken. People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway of Michigan. Grand Rapids Intertribal Council, 1986.
Copeway, George (John). The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibwa Nation, 1850. Indian Life and Indian History, 1860. www
Crawford, Kim. The Daring Trader: Jacob Smith in the Michigan Territory 1802-1825. Michigan State University Press, 2012.
Densmore, Francis. Chippewa Customs. 1979.
Deur, Nishnawbe. 1981.
Diba Jimoojung, Telling Our Story: A History of the Saginaw Ojibwe Anishinabek, Mtl. Pleasant, MI: Ziibiwing Cultural Society, 2005. 978-0-9672331-1-6
Dixson. Life at the Flats, 1999, St. Clair Memories. Mt. Clemons, MI. 586-242-2222
Eastman, Charles. The Soul of the Indian, The Indian Today and as He Was, From the Deep Woods to Civilization, and Indian Boyhood. 1902. www
Echert, Allan W. A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. Wilderness Empire, 1992. Little Brown & Co.
Eicher, Al and Dave. The Indian History of Michigan’s Thumb, The Orphan Train. Program Source. Com.
Elford, Jean Turnbull. Canada, West’s Last Frontier: A History of Lambton. Ontario: Lambton County Historical Society, 1982.
Emmert. Michigan Historical Collection, Vol. 47.
Ewing, Wallace K. Ph. D, Footprints: Stories of Native Americans in West Central Michigan,2016
Farmer, Silas. History of Detroit and Michigan, Vol 2. 1884. www
Farrand, Mrs. B.C. The Indians at Sarnia, Wyoming, Ontario, Lambton Archives.
Farrel, David. The Detroit Fur Trade, Dissertation, 1865, U of W, Milwaukee, Michigan Archives, Lansing, MI.
Flocken. Chiefs. University of Minnesota, 2013. www
Fowle. “Sault Ste. Marie and Michigan”. G.P. Putnam ‘s and Sons, 1925. www
Frazier, Jean. Kah Wam Da Heh. Herman E. Cameron Foundation, 1988.
Fuller, George N. Historic Michigan: Land of the Great Lakes, 1917-1941, Vol. 1. MPHC, MHC, 1944, National Historic Assoc., 1924. Dayton, OH: University of Michigan. www
Fuller, George N. Local History and Personal Sketches of St. Clair and Shiawassee Counties; Historic Michigan, 1873; A Centennial History of the State and Its People, 1939. The Lewis Publishing Co. Hathi Trust. Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. www
Greaux, Joe. Woodland Metis Ojibwe Peace Chief. 2014 Author Interview.
Hatt, Richards. The Sanilac Petroglyphs. Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1958. Bulletin No. 36. Papworth, Butterfield/Port Sanilac Museum.
Hebner, Marilyn and Diana. SCCFHG, MIGC, Immigration Papers.
Helbig, Althea K. Nanabozhoo, Giver of Life. Brighton, MI: Green Oak Press, 1987. 0931600065/9780931600067
Hennepin, Louis. A New Discovery. Description of Louisiana, 1683. www
Hinsdale, Wilbert B. The Archaeological Atlas of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library, 1928. www
Hodgins, Bruce W. Canoeing Fur Trade, 1994. Toronto Heritage. www
Hodgins. Ontario Genealogical Society.
Hotchkiss, George W. History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest. 1898. SCC Library, Michigan Room.
Howard, Nancy. Diary, 1813. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library.
Hudgins. Detroit Papers. Wayne University.
Hudgins. The Biodiversity Atlas of Lake Huron to Lake Erie. EPA, 2002. www
Jenks and Clark Papers, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Jenks, William L. St. Clair County Centennial and Homecoming Celebration. 1921. www
Jenks, William L. The History of St. Clair County, Michigan: Biographical Memoirs of St. Clair County. Vol. 2. Chicago and NY: University of Michigan, The Lewis Publishing Co., 1912. quod.lib.umich.edu
Jenness. Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwe Children. 1954. www
Johnson, Ida A. The Michigan Fur Trade. Lansing MI Historical Commission, 1919.
Johnston, A.J. Lambton County Place Names. Sarnia, ON: Lambton County Council, 1925. Revised 1942, 2nd Edition. Wyoming, ON: Lambton Archives, 2008.
Jones, Rev. Peter. The History of the Ojibwe Indians. 1861. www
Kellogg, Louise P. “Early Narratives of the Northwest, 1634-1699”. 1897. NY: Barnes and Noble, 1953. www
Kienietz. Traditional Ojibwa Religion. Library of Michigan.
Lahonton, Louis A. “Voyages to New France”. 1703. www; “Voyages to North America II” with Thwaites. www; and “Travels Through Louisiana”. www
Lambton Archives. Wyoming, Ontario.
Landon, Fred. Lake Huron, 1944. Bobbs-Merrill Co., Quaife, WHS.
Lanman, Charles. The Red Book of Michigan 1819-1895, 1855. E. B. Smith & Co. Philip Solomons, 1871. quod.lib.umich.edu
Laubin, Reginald and Gladys. The Indian Tipi. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
Lauriston, Victor. Lambton’s 100 Years, 1849-1949. Beers Book, 1906. Our Roots, 2006. U of Calgary.
Levy-Bruhl, Lucien. How Natives Think. Lilian A. Clare. 1910, 1927. 9781614277866
Lewis, Kenneth E. West to Far Michigan. MSU Press, 2002.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. The New Press, 1995, 2007. 9780743296281
Lossing, Benton J. Pictorial Field Book of the War of 1812. 1869/Bill Carr, 2001, Free Pages History, Roots Web, Ancestry.com
Lowrie and Clark. American State Papers and Military Affairs. 1832.
Marantette Papers, Fur Trade, Michigan Archives.
Mason. Culture. 1997.
Mayhew, Eugene J. Fort Sinclair: The British Roots of St. Clair, Michigan. St. Clair Historical Commission, 2003.
McKenny. Native Advocate. 1959.
Means, Russell. Where White Men Fear to Tread. St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
Methodist Ministry in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI, Michigan Archives, Lansing, MI.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection. www
Mitts, Dorothy Marie. That Noble Country: The Romance of the St. Clair River Region. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Co., 1968. Dorothy Mitts was a newspaper columnist for the Port Huron Times Herald in the mid-1900s. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library
MOHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History
Moore, Charles. History of Michigan, Vol. 4. The Lewis Publishing Co., 1915. www
MPHC, 1890, Annual Meeting, Granny Rodd, Harrington. Methodist Ministry in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI
MPHC, Vol. 1, O.C. Thompson, Early St. Clair County History.
MPHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History.
MPHC, Vol. 4, Mack and Miller Distillery, Harsens Island. “Recollections of Aura Stewart”, 1881, pg. 346.
MPHC, Vol. 6, 1883, Autobiography of Eber Ward.
MPHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History.
MPHC, Vol. 11, 1887, Wm. L. Bancroft, Duperon Baby, Slavery.
MPHC, Vol. 17, 1793, Friends Micellany, Gage, Trade, 1762, Early History of St. Clair County, Mrs. B.C. Farrand.
Vol. 20, List of Indian Locations and Numbers.
Vol. 26, Treaty of Saginaw, 1817, 1819. Enos Goodrich, 1896, Early Detroit.
Vol. 28, Calvin J. Thorpe, Trade, Harrington, D.C. Walker, Northern Slavery.
Vol. 29, 1899, Jane M. Kinney, Clyde Twp.
Vol. 38, Emigration.
Vol. 47, Prescott, Emmert, Religion, Williams, Disease.
Vol. 52, David Farrel, Settlement along the Detroit Frontier, 1860-1796.
Methodist Ministries in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, Michigan. www
Munson, John. Michigan Historical Commission, British History, MI Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Nearing, Scott. The Maple Sugar Book. 1950. 9781890132637. Chelsea Green, 2000.
Nelson, Larry L. A Man of Distinction Among Them, Alexander McKee. Kent State UP, 1999.
Niehardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks, 1932. State University of New York Press, 2008.
Orange, Patricia. Lambton County, Ontario Ojibwe History. Wyoming, ON: Lambton Archives, 1975.
Parkins, Almon E. The Historical Geography of Detroit, 1879 – 1940. Lansing MI Historical Commission, 1918. www
Parkman. The Conspiracy of Pontiac. 1763. www
Plain, Alymer N. History of Sarnia Reserve. 1950, Lambton Archives.
Plain, Aylmer N. Osarkodawa in Retrospect, 1975. Sarnia Reserve and Ojibwe History. G. Smith.
Plain, David D. The Plains of Aamjiwnaang: Our History. Trafford Publishing, 2007.
Plain, David. 1300 Moons. Trafford Publishing, 2011.
Plain, David. From Quisconson to Caughnowaga. Trafford Publishing, 2015.
Plain, Nicholas. Sarnia Reserve History of, and History of the Chippewa of Sarnia. 1950, 1951.
Playter, George F. The History of Methodism in Canada. Canadian Methodist Historical Society, 1862. www
Prescott, William. A History of Michigan Methodism, The Father Still Speaks, Worldcat. 1941. www
Quimby. Culture. 1960.
Reid, Joyce. Papers. Deckerville, MI: 2014. (Joyce has devoted her life to education in the spiritual, music, and Indian history. She has received many honors for her work. She has hosted an annual Indian Day in Deckerville for 30 years, never forgetting her own heritage once she found that she had Native blood as a young woman.)
River, Charles. The Chippewa Native American Tribes: The History and Culture of. Editor. 2014.
Roufs, Chiefs, Culture, 2006, U. O. Oklahoma.
Schenk, Theresa M. The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar: The Sociopolitical Organization of the Lake Superior Ojibwe, 1640-1855. Garland Pub. Inc., 1997.
Schmaltz, Peter S. The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario. University of Toronto Press, 1991.
Schoolcraft, Henry. 30 Years among the Indians, 1848, 1851, Travels in Minnesota and Wisc. 1821. www
Smith, Donald B. and Rogers, Edward S. Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations. Dundurn, 1994/2012.
Smith, Donald B. Kahkewaquonaby, Peter Jones, “Sacred Feathers” (Sacred Waving Feathers). University of Toronto. www
Smith, Donald B. Missisauga Portraits: Ojibwe Voices from Nineteenth Century Canada. University of Toronto, 2013. www
Sonnenberg, Lemke, and John M. O’Shea. “Caribou Hunting in the Upper Great Lakes”. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology Memoir 57, Anthropological Archaeology.
Speck, Gordon. Breeds and Halfbreeds. C. N. Potter, 1969. ASIN BOOR1ZLG8M
Spencer, Lynn. History of Petroglyph Park. M.913.87 – Michigan Printing Co., Bad Axe, MI/Port Sanilac Museum.
Stanley, Margueritte. From Whence We Came. 1977. Port Huron Library.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. Oxford, 1992. 0 – 19 507581 – 1, 0 – 19 – 508557 – 4, PBK
Tanner, Helen H. and Voegelin, Ermine W. Indians of Northern Ohio and Southeastern Michigan: An ethnohistorical report (American Indian Ethnohistory: North Central and North Eastern). Garland Publishing, 1975. Copyright Creative Commons.
Tanner, Helen H. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Newberry Library, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
Tanner, Helen H. The Chippewa of Lower Michigan.
Tanner, Helen H. The Ojibwe. Newberry Library: Chelsea House Publishers, NY, Philadelphia, 1992.
The Clark Library of Western History, CMU, Mt. Pleasant, MI.
The History of Macomb County, Michigan. www
The History of Saginaw County, Michigan. www
The History of Warren, Michigan. www
The History of Wayne County, Michigan. www
The Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County. www
The Indians at Sarnia. Mrs. B. C. Farrand, Wyoming, Ontario: Lambton Archives.
The Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI.
Thom, James A. Panther in the Sky. NY: Ballantine Books, 1989.
Thom, James A. Long Knife. NY: Ballantine Books, 1979.
Tunkashila, Gerald H. Indian Mythology and History. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
Utley, Henry M. Michigan as a Province, Territory and State. Vol. 4. 1906. www
Vecsey, Christopher. Traditional Ojibwe Religion. www
Warner, Robert. Economic and History Report on Royce Area 66.
Warren, William W. History of the Ojibwe People. 1885. www
We See Each Other. Frazier/Herman Cameron Foundation.
Western Historical Co. The History of St. Clair County, Michigan. www
Wilson, William E. Shooting Star – The Story of Tecumseh. NY: J.J. Little and Ives Co., 1942.
Woolworth, Dearborn Historical Society, Detroit Indians, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library.
Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States, 1492-Present. 20th Anniversary Edition. Harper Collins, 1999.
African Holocaust, Indian Holocaust, Wole Soyika, www
Andreas, History of St. Clair County, MI. 1884, www
Angel Fire, Native History, www
Archaeological Atlas of Michigan, Hindsdale, 1928, University of Michigan www
Bureau of Indian Affairs Apology to Native Americans, Tuhtonka, World Future Feed, www
Blackwater River People, www
Black Elk, www
Bodewatomi History and Culture, www
Burton, Clarence, Beginnings of Michigan, Cadillac, www
Canadian Indian History, www
Cannon, Mounds, 1973, www
Chippewa History, E How, www
City Data, Michigan History, Indian Allies, www
Constantin, Phil, Ojibwe Calendar, www
Davis, Thomas J., African, Indian Americans, Arizona State University, www
Detroit Historical Society, 1872, Slavery in the Early 1800s, Detroit Michigan, J.S. Girardin, www
Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, www
Flocken, University of Minnesota, 2013, Chiefs, www
From the Deep Woods to Civilization, The Soul of the Indian, Charles Eastman, www
Genealogy Trails, Fuller, Slavery, www
Gulewitsch, Victor, 1995, Chippewa of Kettle and Stoney Point, Historical Claims Commission Research Office, www
Hathi Trust, wonderful source of historical writings, www
Hennepin, A New Discovery, Description of Louisiana, 1683, www
Historic Saugeen Metis, Patsy McArthur/B.C. Farrand, Upper Detroit to Saugeen, Lower Lake Huron’s Metis and Trade, Upper Region of the Detroit River, Lake Huron Watersheds, Bruce Peninsula, Inverhuron Learning Center, Southampton, Ontario, 2013, www
History of Canada and Canada West, www
History of Canadian Indians, 1763-1840, Marionopolis College, www
History of Macomb County, Michigan, www
History of Methodism in Canada, George Frederick Playter, 1862, www
History of Michigan, www
History of the Ojibwe Indians, Andrew Blackbird, www
History of the Ojibwe Indians, Rev. Peter Jones, 1861, www
History of Saginaw County, MI, www
History of St. Clair County, MI, Western Historical Co., www
History of Warren, MI, www
History of Wayne County, MI, www
Hodgins, Bruce W., Canoeing Fur Trade, 1994, Toronto Heritage, www
Hudgins, Wayne University, Detroit, Papers, www
Indian Affairs: Law and Treaties, Oklahoma State University, OSU, www
Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County, MI, www
Indian Boyhood, Charles Eastman, www
Indian History Timeline, www
Indian Law, www
Indians. Org. Culture, www
Ipperwash Commission of Inquiry historical background, Attngen.jus.gov.on.ca
Isabella County, MI, Gen. Web, www
Jenks, A. E., Wild Rice Gatherers, 1900, www
Jenks, Wm. L., History of St. Clair County, MI, 1912, Biographical Memoirs of St. Clair County, Vol. 2, St. Clair County Centennial and Homecoming Celebration, 1921, www
Jews and African History, Halle, Selassie, www
Kugel, 1998, Treaties, www
Lahonton, Louis Armand, De Lom D’Arce, Baron De La Honton, Voyages to New France, 1703, Voyages to North America II/Thwaites, Travels through Louisiana, www
Lanman, History of MI from Its Earliest Colonization, www
Lejeunesse, E. J., The Windsor Border Region: Canada’s Southernmost Frontier, www
Lexington MI history, www
Liberty Law Site, www
Lincoln Quotes, www
Little Turtle, Canada History, www
Losser, A., Ojibwe Culture, www
Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, www
Macomb, William, Memoir, www
McArthur, Patsy and Farrand, B.C. Historic Saugeen Metis. Southampton, ON: Inverhuron Learning Center, 2013. www
Metis History Timeline, Canadian History, a Distinct Viewpoint, www
Metis History, www
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection, MPHC, Vol. 40, www
Mills, James Cooke, History of the Saginaw Chippewa, 1918, www
Missisauga Eagle Tribe, www
Moore, Charles, History of MI, Vol. 4, The Lewis Publishing Co., 1915, www
MSU, MSU Libraries, Map Library, Scanned Maps of MI, www
Mystic Detroit, Patriot War, www
Native American Apology, Dr. Mary Harmar, Ontario Canada, www
Native Tec. Pierre Girard, www
Ojibwe Culture, Kevin Callahan, UMN, www
Ojibwe History, Migration to the Great Lakes, www
Ojibwe Indian History Timeline, www
Ojibwe Whoa, , www
Ontario Encyclopedia, www
Papal Bulls, www
Parkins, Almon Ernest, The Historical Geography of Detroit, 1918, www
Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 1763, www
Porterfield, Kay, 10 Lies about Indigenous Science, www
Prescott, Wm., Native Religion, 1941, Worldcat, www
Project Gutenberg, the American Indian, Alexander Henry, and Henry Schoolcraft, www
Sarnia, Wikipedia, www
Schoolcraft, Henry, 30 Years among the Indians, 1848, 1851, Travels in Minnesota and Wisc., 1821, www
Smith, Donald B., Missisauga Portraits: Ojibwe Voices from Nineteenth Century Canada, 2013, U.O. Toronto, www
Students on Site, Native American Missions and Schools, www
Sturdevant, Treaties, 1978, www
The Canadian Truth Commission Report, www
The History of County Creation, CMU, excellent site, www
The History of the County of Middlesex, Canada, Godspeed Publishing, 1889, www
The Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County, www
The Indian Today and as He Was, Charles Eastman, www
The Lies about when Slavery Ended, Denise Oliver Velez, 2012, www
The Pokagon Bodewadmi, Pottawatomi, www
The Soul of the Indian, Charles Eastman, www
The Truth about Slavery, www
The Westbrooks Ontario, www
The Writings of Cadillac, www
Tinker, George, Osage School of Theology, www
Tolatsga, Tolatsga.org, Coral Painter Magazine, www, First Nations Site map, First Nations Histories, Lee Stultzman, Tolatsga.org
Travers, Karen Jean, Dissertation, Seeing with Two Eyes, Colonial Policy, The Huron Tract and Change 1780-1863, York University, 2015, Toronto, Canada
Treaty Texts, Upper Canada Land Surrenders, www
Turtle Nation Indians, www
Tutonka, World Future Feed, www
University of Oklahoma, Indian Affairs Law and Treaties, www
Upper Canada History, Early Canadian History Narrative, www
Vecsey, Christopher, Traditional Ojibwe Religion, www
War Bounty Lands, Ancestry, www
Western Historical Society, 1883, French History, Northwest and Indian History, www
When were Blacks Truly Freed from Slavery, Hillary Crosby, www
Whoa, dickshovel.com site map, First Nations Histories, Lee Stultzman, www
Wisconsin State Historical Society, Great Lakes Indian History, www
Wisconsin State Historical Society, Vol. 6, The Northwest 1817, Storrow Letters, www
WSHS, Collection of, Vol. 10, Blackhawk, www
Blue Water Indian Pow Wow, 1995, booklet
Friends of the St. Clair River Watershed, Brochure
Harpers Magazine, Vol. 98, Pokagon, Simon, The massacre of Fort Dearborn at Chicago, 1899, www
Marine City Gazette, 1876, Western Historical Co., Aura Stewart, Early St. Clair County
Michigan Archeology, Vol. 3, 1957, Richard A. Pohrt, War Club
North American Review, 1830, Jackson Treaties
Sarnia Observer, Shirley Brownlee, 1857, Lumbering, Barnes, Ojibwe, 1967
Saturday Evening Post, 1947, Robert Murphy, Mother Rodd
The Detroit News Tribune, 1896, Dixon, Mother Rodd
The Penny Magazine, April 29, 1837, Ontario, Canada
The Smithsonian, 2014, Amanda Foreman, The Birth of American Freedom and the Founding of the Union
This book came about after a visit to the library where I could not find local Indian History. I grew up in the St. Clair and Black River area of Michigan, fishing on all the area waters with my father and brothers. I loved books, libraries, horses and puzzles; I was not a tech person. I love to cook, garden, travel, and camp. I was determined to find and share the truth. This has been a difficult journey in every way. I give you, the reader, the truth and blessings I also reaped. Cheryl Morgan
Cheryl Morgan lives near Port Huron, Michigan with her husband Tom and dog Fred.
Don’t forget to “like ” us on Facebook!