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Ottissippi: Chapter 7, Part 1, #1: The French, British, English and Americans

By Cheryl Morgan

OTTISSIPPI is written by local author – Cheryl Morgan. It is the New Native History and culture of Southeast Michigan and beyond that has been untold. It was inaccessible due to the complexity of the many tribes, governments, states, and boundaries. The history was hidden and scattered everywhere due to time and the many changes of names of waterways, peoples and places. It is the result of 4 years of intense groundbreaking research that clarifies and reveals what happened here and in the Northwest Territory. Now available in one volume! Non-fiction 643 pages.

BWHL will be sharing excerpts from OTTISSIPPI with the readers every other week. The book is available on Amazon.com/ottissippi.

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It is available as an eBook with a searchable Table of Contents and in Print – paperback.

War was the royal pastime – the hunting game of Princes for spoil and dominion. [. . .] for the purposes of violence and devastation, of lust, rapine, and insatiate ambition, long drenched the earth with blood and tears, and rent the sky with cries of anguish” (Macomb Memoir, www).

Wampum and the calumet pipe of peace, or truth pipe, were used in Council Assemblies as the Bible is used in taking an oath. It was a, Thank or Grace, oath of loyalty and good faith, ascending to the Father of Spirits.

The Dutch introduced the practice of scalping and expanded it to include bounty for Natives fit to be sold into slavery. The Dutch and Puritans joined forces to exterminate all Native Savages. Slicing open innocents’ heads and using them as kickballs and decorations, they raped and tortured all night as entertainment, doing this as an example for the Mohawk Iroquois. The horrific European practice was often attributed to Aboriginal people (Metis Canadian History, A Distinct Point of View, www).

THE FRENCH

Fish, furs, and French jealousy were all factors in the efforts of France to possess the New World. Political and religious ambitions that knew no bounds incarnated in men who feared nothing and would dare everything to further the interests of France and the Jesuit Order. They went everywhere and marked the route, claiming the land as its own. It was designated New France, Louisiana, or Canada.

Four kings have ruled this region: Henry IV, until he died. Then Louis XIII, at age 16, with Cardinal Richlieu as his Prime Minister. Louis XIV, at age 14, became King. The Duke of Orleans served as Regent, when Louis XV, at 13, was crowned King. Then King George of England became Sovereign of Detroit, in 1763 and the Treaty of Paris.

Under the French Government, a governor general appointed by the king commanded at Quebec. Local commandants were appointed for Detroit and other posts. They were held responsible to the governor general to whom they reported from 1603 to 1760.

Cadillac’s description of Detroit: The Detroit is but a channel or river of medium breadth and 25 leagues, through flows the waters of the Sweet Seas to the ocean. Its borders are so many vast prairies, and the freshness of the beautiful waters keeps the banks always green. The prairies are bordered by long and broad rows of fruit trees which have never felt the hand of the vigilant gardener. Here also orchards, young and old, bend their branches under the weight and quantity of their fruit towards the Mother Earth which has produced them. It is in this land, so fertile, that the ambitious vine builds a thick roof with its large leaves and heavy clusters.

Under these broad walks one sees assembled by hundreds the timid deer and faun, also the squirrel bounding in his eagerness to collect the apples and plums with which the earth is covered. Here the turkey gathers the grapes. Golden pheasants, the quail, the partridge, woodcock, and numerous doves swarm in the woods and cover the country, which is dotted and broken with thickets and high forests of full grown trees, forming a charming perspective. The hand of the pitiless reaper has never mown the luxuriant grass upon which fatten the wooly buffaloes of magnificent size and proportion.

The fish are here in great abundance. Swans are so numerous that one would take for lilies the reeds in which they are crowded together. The gabbling goose, the duck, the widgeon, and the bustard are so abundant that they draw up in lines to let the boats pass through. The climate temperate, the air purified by a gentle breeze, the sky’s always serene.

The situation is agreeable, and it opens and closes the door of passage to the most distant nations situated on the borders of the vast seas of sweet water.

None but the Enemies of Truth could be enemies to this establishment so necessary to the increase of the glory of the King, to the progress of religion, and the destruction of the throne of Baal (Cadillac).

So numerous and large, indeed, were the wild bison that the making of garments from their wool was seriously considered. In addition to the animals named, elk, moose, wolves, bears, rabbits, otters, lynxes, wildcats, beavers, and muskrats were very numerous in the vicinity, of Detroit. There was a three or four dollar, bounty paid for killing wolves. Myriads of wild pigeons made their roosts in the forests of the country, being so numerous that hundreds could easily be killed with a walking stick (Western Historical Co. 1883).

Canada was surrendered to the British in 1760. The Quebec Act of 1774 called for a civil government of the territory, including Detroit. None of the governor generals exercised any authority over this region, except as military officers. The resident commandant exercised both a civil and a military rule, subject to the orders of his commanding general. All posts West of Detroit were governed from this establishment (Farmer, 1884).

Throughout its history, the Port Huron, Michigan area and the Strait lands of Canada and Detroit, as the strategic gateway to the Upper Lakes, was an area that a succession of Indian, French, British, and American leaders sought to control (Adapted from Mitts, The Times Herald, “As the Wild Goose flies”, SCC library MI Room).

The Ojibwe were a major power; a variety of names and divisions of population masked their true size. The Grand Saulteur was an important Ojibwe chief. There were 150 bands of 35,000 Ojibwe living at Sault St. Marie River in Southern Ontario (Chippewa History, EHow, www).

The King made grants to seigneurs, giving him complete control of large estates, which were parceled out to purchasers or cultivated by his own people or were farmed out to lessees on terms agreed upon. The terms of sale were by decree of the King. When an officer was allowed to build a fort in a new place, he was often made proprietor of the fort and certain adjacent lands, which he could lease or sell (Farmer).

EARLY FRENCH HISTORY

Jean Talon, the Intendant of New France, was determined to expand the territory of King Louis XIV. The Hudson’s Bay Co. was in the far North, and he thought it may come South also. He sent Nicolas Perrot, an intrepid explorer and interpreter, to call an assembly of the tribes of the Northern Lakes at Sault Ste. Marie. Francois Daumont, Seiur De St. Lusson, was sent as the King’s representative.

On June 14, 1671, beside the St. Mary River Rapids, a great crowd gathered and a ceremony made. A procession of French missionaries in black robes, the interpreter, Nicolas Perrot, and St. Lusson, wearing an army uniform, were followed by the traders and voyagers with bright sashes about their waists. The cross was then planted and the territory claimed for French dominion.

The Iroquois attacked Grand Kaskaskia, Illinois in 1680, then attacked Fort St. Louis, where they were beaten in battle and retreated (Metis Timeline, info/metis.aspx).

The first Indian scalps were cut off during King Phillip’s War in 1675. In 1683, New France began taking Iroquois slaves by the King’s order (Metis History, www).

In 1684, slaves flee the British for the Spanish colony of La Florida; thousands flee for freedom and establish St. Augustine, Florida.

DULHUT – DULUTH

The most famous of the coureur de bois, “the King of the Coureurs De Bois”, was Daniel Do Grosollon, Sieur Du L’Hut. Born at St. Germain En Laye, France. A member of the Royal Guard for Louis XIV. At 20 years old, he obtained a captain’s commission in the Marines in Canada. He returned to France in 1674 and fought with Cond’e, the Prince of Orange. The Recollect Louis Hennepin was also there as a noncombatant, aiding the wounded and confessing the dying. Hennepin was a companion to LaSalle on his voyage in New France. Returning to Montreal, Duluth sold his quiet home to embark on a life of adventure.

In 1678, he and his brother, Claude Grossalon De La Tourette, six Frenchmen, and three Indian slaves, presented to him by friendly Indians to serve as guides, set out. His object was to enter the Sioux country west of Lake Superior. In 1679, he reached the village of Kathio, the main castle of the Sioux. He planted the French Royal Arms, taking possession of the country in his liege’s name. He made peace between the Ojibwe and the Sioux with treaties to take their furs to Montreal. This act opened the West to French trade.

When Dulhut heard about prisoners in the Sioux camp, he went to find them. One was Pierre Hennepin, his friend from France and explorer with LaSalle. He commanded their release, and they were released.

Dulhut was condemned as going against the French policy of non-traffic with the Natives during this time. He was condemned as being the captain of the coureur de bois, which he denied, spending all his time persuading the Western Indians to trade with the French at Montreal, defeating the designs of the English from the South and the North at Hudson’s Bay. He went to France and was entirely restored. On return, he was appointed to a council to decide on the course of action regarding the Iroquois.

In 1683, he was sent to Michilimackinac to direct the important Indian Trade of the North. He built a new fort, Kaministiqua, three miles from Fort William, the main fort in use. LaSalle from St. Louis was sent to Michilimackinac to answer to La Durantaye, commander at Michilimackinac, for his lawless misdemeanors. He passed the charge to Dulhut, claiming he was “King of the Coureurs De Bois” and to blame.

When Dulhut was left in command of the fort while La Durantaye was away as envoy to LaSalle, he was brought news of two Frenchmen being murdered by Indians near Keweenaw. He deemed for the safety of all that the offenders be apprehended, tried, and punished. He went to the Folle Avoine, “Rice People”, who told him it was Achiganaga and his son who murdered and pillaged the traders. They were found and acknowledged their fault. The Indians normally paid restitution for a death. After a great council, the father, and a Folle Avoinee, were released, and the two sons accused one another. They were convicted and must die as the Frenchmen had. The men were taken to a hill, shot, and buried upon their own testimony. Dulhut was the first to exhibit the French Code. Some condemned the act as harsh and impolite, yet as the Enforcer of Life, he was upheld.

Dulhut was a leader of the Indians. His services were sought in dealing with the Indians. He was a friend of Governor Frontenac engaged in the Fur Trade on a large scale. He became the commandant of Michilimackinac and the trade of the North and West.

In 1685, Dulhut was asked to build a post (fort) at the foot of Lake Huron – or Fort Detroit, Fort Duluth, or Fort St. Joseph, as it was called. A military trading post to protect the Allies when fighting the English and Iroquois invaders. The forts were a haven of protection. He was promised a garrison of 50 men. Instead, he had to garrison and provision the post at his own expense.

Fort Saint Joseph was built by Duluth, the little bastioned block house of logs. M. De Beauvis was lieutenant of Fort St. Joseph at the Strait of Lakes Huron and Erie. Fort St. Joseph was elevated, commanding the rapids. The fort at St. Joseph is called “Tirkarondia” or “Tyscharondia”, meaning the “Place of Many Beavers” (Jenks, vol. 1, 1912).

In 1686, Duluth was called to gather allies for an attack on the Seneca Iroquois in New York, who had smuggled trade items to Michilimackinac for the Albany Dutch traders.

The fort complex was the staging area for military actions. Governor Denonville planned a great campaign against the Iroquois. Fort St. Joseph became the mobilization center of 200 coureur de bois and 500 Indians of the Three Fires Alliances. Henry De Tonti, Nicholas Perrot, and LaForest each brought a contingent from their posts. La Durantaye had caught 30 prisoners and an English party, with a load of goods, on a second trip to Michilimackinac. The Indians celebrated with wild demonstration and were hurried away by Duluth to rendezvous with Governor Denonville. Another party of English traders were captured on Lake Erie. The expedition did not accomplish much but was a show of force in defense of Canada.

Louis Arnand De Lom D’arce, Baron Lahonton, was then the commandment of Fort St. Joseph. He had a keen sense of humor and unusual ability as a writer. His writings of the savages and New France are enlightening. He was a great hunter with his Indian companions. The long winter gave him time to write. He wished for a more exciting place, and being short on supplies and hearing of the French failure in New York, he abandoned the post to transfer the forces and supplies to Michilimackinac and burned the post in 1688, the only barrier against the English and Iroquois.

LAHONTON

Lahonton was sent to man the post at Fort St. Joseph, being accompanied from Niagra by Dulhut.

In 1687 to 1688, we killed deer and roebucks of the islands in the water. We arrived at the mouth of the Lake of Huron’s.

From Lahonton’s Travels through Louisiana, he tells of life at Ft. St. Joseph: the men of my detachment are brisk, proper fellows, and my canoes are both new and large. The Iroquois canoe was made of elm bark and very thick and heavy. Thirty men row in them, they are so long and broad; they are two abreast. I am to go along with M. Dulhut, a Lion’s Gentleman, who is a person of great merit and has done his king and his country very considerable service.

Mr. Delhut’s coureur de bois had planted in the fort, bushels of turkey wheat (maize or Indian corn), which afforded a plentiful crop that proved of great use to me. Our fort covers a square of one arpent (French about .8445 acre) in extent, without the bastions, and is very advantageously situated on an eminence (hill), separated from the river by a gentle slope of about 40 paces – 120 feet. Mr. Delhut has presented me with a great roll of tobacco to trade for corn at Mackinac. The Indians raised summer squash extensively.

Fort St. Joseph is used by the Huron and Ottawa of Lake Huron to retreat to against the Iroquois.

Sault Ste Marie was visited by traders as early as 1616. After the discovery of the Mississippi, Michilimackinaw became the most important, and SS Marie became a station on the trade route to the far Northwest.

Lahonton saw the English as taking over the Fur Trade, the Fish Trade, and more. Their prices were lower for better goods. Birch leaves as fine as paper are here, and I frequently made use of ‘em, for want of paper, in writing the journal of my voyages.

Henry De Tonty was a Neopolitan whose Father invented the insurance system (Lahonton).

To die is nothing, but to live, in the midst of fire is too much.

La Durantaye had halted his savage forces from the far Indians (Mackinac) at the head of the Strait, leading from Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair, and there on June 7, 1687 had erected the Arms of France and taken formal possession of this vast region in the name of the King. Fevers raged among the militia who, being unacquainted with the way of setting boats with poles, were faced at every turn to get into the water and drag ‘em up against the rapid stream.

Fort Debaude, the French fort in Sault Sainte Marie, was the headquarters of the French Fur Trade in the Northwest of New France. With the government in Montreal and Quebec City, the country was of two parts: Quebec in the North, and Louisiana below.

Due to increasing hostility of the English and their allied Indians, Governor Denonville was unable to cope, and Louis XIV appointed Frontenac again, now 70, as Governor of New France. He returned to Quebec in the momentous year of 1690.

He immediately sent 150 Canadians with Louvigny to build Fort De Baude at Michilmackinac, named for Count Frontenac. The English would receive a warm welcome if they dared to come trading. Charles Lemoyne, Sieur De Longueuill, led the expedition which founded Louisiana in 1699. In 1692, he served against the English in Acadia. He also attacked the English Fleet in the West Indies in 1706.

Frontenac beat off an attack on Quebec by an English Squadron in 1690. In 1691, he had built a fort on the St. Joseph River, near Niles, Michigan, to stop the English traders going West near Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. It was called Fort St. Joseph (Fowle). The fort was on the main trade route and the war routes in Southern Michigan.

Father Claude Allouez was at the Mission to the Miami and the Pottawatomi. There the Iroquois attacked in 1694 and were vigorously beaten, withdrawing their plan to war with the Illinois Indians, allied with the French.

Chief Kondiaronk, of much ability, played a prominent role in Frontenac’s War, his skill in diplomatic and confederating the tribes. He was a precursor to Pontiac and Tecumseh. He was strongly attached to Frontenac and accepted his council. He was a Christian convert who preached at Mackinac. He died at Montreal during an important Peace Conference in 1701. He was interred with elaborate rites.

CADILLAC

Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac, a captain in the troops of the colony. The governor praised Cadillac for his valor, wisdom, experience, and good conduct.

Cadillac was born in the Province of Gascony, France. In 1658, he went out to Canada and, around 1683, to Nova Scotia. He married Marie Therese Guyon, daughter of a sea captain he had explored the New England Coast with. For a time, he was a seigneur at Bar Harbor Maine, granted to him by the King.

Cadillac was called on in 1689, after the outbreak of war, to return to France and relay his knowledge of the New England Coast. He returned to Canada with orders for Governor Frontenac to reward him for his services. The governor soon discovered his great capabilities. A true Gascon, proud, energetic, sharp-tongued, quick to draw his sword, and facile with a pen. His vigorous administration and ability to control the Indians, his loyalty, won the support of Count Frontenac and of Count Ponchetrain, the Minister of Colonies, and Louis XIV himself.

Michilimackinac was the most important place in the West, the commandant of Fort Debaude having the supervision over all the forts. Father Nouvel, the superior over all Western Missions, was also headquartered in the Mission at Sainte Ignace. A small French village was nearby, and the Huron and Ottawas had large towns close by.

During the trading season, the towns swelled to 5,000 Indians camping, and the courieur de bois added another hundred. The sale of brandy soon caused a feud between Cadillac and the Jesuits, which had disastrous consequences for him. The region had become safe again for voyagers to bring furs to Montreal; the Jesuits demanded that the Indians be protected from traders selling whiskey in the villages.

In 1686, Louis XIV decreed that the West would be closed to all Frenchmen, except the missionaries. The Indians would have to carry their furs to Montreal. The French population remained small, the King allowing only Roman Catholics entry. Many French Huguenots – Protestants who rejected the Catholic system of feudalism – came to America and went to English lands.

The English Colonies were growing very large. The religious groups being persecuted in Europe found freedom to worship as they pleased. Thousands of French Huguenots fled to Germany, England, and the American Colonies, where they became valuable members of communities.

Fort Debaude and Fort St. Joseph were abandoned in 1698.

Cadillac had done well in the trade at Michilimackinac and worked with the Indians. He went to the King with a plan to establish a post on the Strait between Lake Huron and Erie to keep the English from the rich fur country of the Northwest. Cadillac would bear the costs with his trade to the area. The strategic position of the fort was superior to the Michilimackinac Post.

Cadillac was one of the few French military who understood the Indians and demanded they be respected.

It was not uncommon for the same person to be designated two or more names, entirely different from each other (Farmer 1884). This adds great confusion to history, as does changing names of places, waterways, and landmarks.

CADILLAC AND THE DETROIT

Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac, also Lamothe Launay or Laumet, was a close observer. He thought out his work and planned like a general. He exhibited rare commercial foresight; he would neither yield his right of judgement nor his prerogatives as commandant.

He was opposed in many of his plans by trading companies and by the Jesuits, who were the dominant political force in the New World and the strongest religious power. While yielding the Jesuit Fathers all deference in religious matters, Cadillac would not yield to their dictation in matters pertaining to the Civil State. He knew his rights, and was able, to maintain them even against large odds, with spirit and determination. Nothing escaped his observation; he discerned motives and plans.

In 1701, Cadillac was granted a seigniory, a domain of 15 arpents square, or 15 acres square, equal to 225 acres, to encourage settlement of the French in the new region and block the English from trading to the North and West. Cadillac’s grant would now be bounded by the Detroit River, Brush Street, and Cass and Grand River Avenue. Documents in Quebec show he claimed all of the land on both sides of the River Detroit from Lake Erie to Lake Huron. He claimed the entire Strait because of the great expense he incurred in establishing the first colony and also because of the general benefits accruing to New France from the peace he secured with the Iroquois and for establishment of the fort at Detroit, which prevented the English from reaching the Western Indians.

In pursuance of his claim, he made a concession to his eldest son of a tract of land on the river, beginning at the entrance into Lake Erie, with a frontage of six leagues (18 miles), and extending back five leagues (15 miles) from the river. This concession included Grosse Isle and all the adjacent islands. He made grants to Guion and Witherell.

He praised the Strait extravagantly to Count Ponchetrain: The earthly paradise, beautiful streams, broad avenues of fruit trees, never having a watchful gardener, drooping under the weight of their fruit. So temperate, so fertile, and so beautiful. It may justly be called the Earthly Paradise of North America.

The Wyandotte – Ouendats – were already here doing the business of trading with the tribes. The Ojibwe, Miami, Pottawatomi, Winebagoe’s, Ottawa, and Huron were Algonquin and Allies. Trading was more a social and political exchange of goodwill than economic. The ancient Huron village was across from Detroit. The Illinois, Osage, and Missouri also sent some families to Detroit.

The Wyandots were the leading tribe in the territory of the Northwest. To them was entrusted the Great Calumet, which united all the tribes in that territory in a confederacy for mutual protection and gave them the right to assemble the tribes in council and to kindle the Council Fire (Taylor 1898).

The main Ottawa village was at Gibralter, Michigan and about Amherstburg on the main land (Ontario), where they erected their Council House. In this village was kept their archives and international Council Fire. They occupied a great territory from the Detroit River to Cleveland, and South to the Shawnee towns (in southern Ohio). (Taylor 1898).

A large rock (Gibralter) in the Detroit River marked the turn on the river to the Wyandotte council area for many far away tribes coming to the councils.

The calumet was the great token of peace (the Truth Pipe). A large pipe made of marble with a two and a half-foot long reed or cane adorned with feathers, women’s hair, and bird wings. A pipe for peace and for war. Councils were to be true and honest before God (Ohio History Central Connection).

Cadillac invited the friendly Indians to settle nearby for trade and for protection against the English Allies. The Huron and Miami settled below the fort, the Ojibwe and Ottawa above, The Pottawatomi to the West.

So many of the Northern Indians left Michilimackinac that Father Carheil burned the Chapel of St. Ignace and left for Quebec.

The Indians who come to trade at Detroit are the Hurons, the Ottawas, the Sauteurs, and the Pottawatomie’s, who are of all the Indians most faithful and the most attached to our interests. They never murdered any Frenchmen and have often warned us of the plots of other tribes.

Cadillac was denied schools and military training for the Natives. After buying out the Company of the Colony at Quebec, Cadillac had full command.

In 1705, about 200 Indians had settled nearby. The numerous Indians were overcrowded, taxing the resources and quarreling with each other.

Cadillac always received the visiting Indians chiefs with great courtesy. They dined with him, and he lavished presents upon them. Vermillion was given, red coats, white ruffled shirts, silver bangles, tobacco, and brandy. The Indians returned furs in appreciation. Wampum was always used to record transactions, and he smoked the Red Calumet of Peace with them.

As a seignior, Cadillac would pledge fealty to the King, file the lands granted to tenants, and built a mill for the villagers, and was to perform military service as needed. The habitants owed the seignior fealty and homage. They would raise their hats to him, grind their grain at his mill, paying one-fourteenth for the grinding, work a certain number of days each year on the seignior’s farm, and pay rent in produce or goods. The tenants paid rent in fun (pleasure) or cash, though most traded produce. They paid a fee to work at a skilled craft. They were required to erect a maypole at his residence. A celebration was made for all.

The habitants had the privilege of trading, hunting, and fishing, but were not to kill hares, partridge, or pheasants. He could not sell or give his land as security without consent, and if it was sold, Cadillac was to have the first right of purchase. One De Lorme’s grant of 32 acres also stipulated he was also to furnish timber for vessels and fortifications when desired, and further promised not to work as a blacksmith, cutler, armorer, or brewer without a special permit. He might import goods but could employ no clerks unless they lived in Detroit. And he was not to sell liquor to Indians.

Under Cadillac, a windmill was built on the river. He was reported to the governor for charging one-eighth and was ordered to reduce it to the usual rate. Cadillac brought horses and cattle from Montreal, and pigs were kept on Isle Aux Cochons, Hog Island – Belle Isle. The fort was equipped with the best armament available.

Cadillac called a great council of the chiefs for four days, August 6 to August 10, 1707. The following is from a Colonial Memoir written in 1707 and preserved at Paris.

The village of the Pottawatomie’s adjoins the fort, they lodge partly under apaquois, which are made of mat grass. The women do all this work. The men are well clothed. Their entire occupation is hunting and dress. They make use of a great deal of vermillion and, in winter, wear buffalo robes richly painted and, in summer, either blue or red cloth.

They play a good deal at Lacrosse in summer. Twenty or more on each side. Their bat is a sort of little racket, and the ball with which they play is made of very heavy wood, somewhat larger than the balls used at tennis. When playing, they are entirely naked except a breech cloth and moccasins on their feet. Their body is painted with all sorts of colors. Some, with white clay, trace white lace on their bodies, as if on all the seams of a coat, and at a distance, it would appear to be taken for silver lace. They play deep bets, and often village against village. (This letter is continued in “Chapter 4: Explorers and Missionaries”.)

The face of nature, fresh in luxuriance of virgin soil, was everywhere clothed in magnificent vegetation, Indian trails wound through the forest, extensive tracts of oak lands that seemed like cultivated parks, studded with little crystal lakes and streams covered with flowers.

Herds of buffalo – beeves – great numbers of moose and elk, rich clusters of grapes, apples and plums.

A large number of half-breed children were around their posts, the offspring of their licentiousness (Lanman, Red Book).

There was a vast mart of trade of commercial preeminence. The Ottawa first felt the repercussions of the permanent invasion. Indian tribes and White traders were dealing directly with the French or British for foreign-made goods. The French trusted the Indians; no seals or locks were placed on the storehouses, and the Indians came and went when they pleased.

Cadillac’s enemies in New France used their influence against him. The Montreal Merchants, “The Company of the Colony of Canada”, feared injury, and the missionaries opposed the liquor trading and debauching of the Indians. Many attempts were made to remove him. Because of frequent complaints, he was removed in 1710 and appointed Governor of Louisiana, the Southern French lands.

We will then return in two weeks with Chapter 7 Part II: Forts, Indian Captives and American Biography. These Chapters are very lengthy.

I hope you are enjoying the journey. Cheryl

Bibliography

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The Smithsonian, 2014, Amanda Foreman, The Birth of American Freedom and the Founding of the Union

 

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This book came about after a visit to the library where I could not find local Indian History. I grew up in the St. Clair and Black River area of Michigan, fishing on all the area waters with my father and brothers. I loved books, libraries, horses and puzzles; I was not a tech person. I love to cook, garden, travel, and camp. I was determined to find and share the truth. This has been a difficult journey in every way. I give you, the reader, the truth and blessings I also reaped. Cheryl Morgan

Cheryl Morgan lives near Port Huron, Michigan with her husband Tom and dog Fred.

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