Blue Water Healthy Living

CLICK HERE TO VISIT OUR WEBSITE

Entertainment

OTTISSIPPI: Chapter 14 Indian Culture And Lifeways, Part II – Hunting, Fishing, and War cont.

By Cheryl Morgan

THE FOREST

“The forest was a cathedral; it was home, it was protection. Mother Earth was very fruitful, providing everything the indigenous people needed. The Great Spirit was worshipped and adored in his magnificent creation. 

Bark and trees for home building, canoes for travel – many, many useful items were made from the forest. Sap for sugar, pitch for glue, fiber for bags and clothing, wildlife for sustenance. Roots for sewing and medicine. The Native was very thankful for the Great Spirit’s benevolence. The forest floor was park-like, the towering trees, the wildflowers, the wildlife paths, the Native traveling through the trails which led in all directions.  

Advertisements - Click the Speaker Icon for Audio

In the winter, the forest was much warmer than out in the open, winds were blocked by the trees, firewood was readily available. A nearby stream provided water. 

To fell trees, a fire was used to burn the wood at the bottom, mud was applied on the upper portion to keep the whole tree from burning. 

When new planting fields were needed, fire was used to clear the land in preparation. 

The virgin soil was very fertile. Planting fields were used for about 20 years before moving to a new section. The healthy bird and waterfowl population applied natural fertilizer, fish entrails were buried in planting rows to decay and add fertility. 

Michigan and Ontario had a great variety of trees. Some of them are alders, apple, ash, basswood (tilia americana or tilia canadensis), or whitewood, beech, birch, blue beech, bush cranberry, buttonwood (sycamore), bush cranberry, butternut, cedars, cherry, crabapple, dogwood, elder, elm, hazel, hemlock, hickory, ironwood, larch, maples, mountain ash, oaks, pear, pine, poplar, plums, sassafras, slippery elm, spruce, tamarack, walnut, and willows. This list is not exhaustive; there are probably more Native trees these are the most well-known” (Plain/Jones).

“Black ash was used for splint to make baskets and was plentiful. Hickory made bows and arrows. White ash for paddles and spear poles and many other useful articles. Pounding mills were made of black birch, about a foot in diameter, the center of which was burnt out with live coals and finished with sandstone to make it smooth, and when it was completed, it made a good pounding mill to make corn flour for the community. 

They made their kneading bowls out of soft maple and ladles for every purpose also rolling pins” (Nicholas plain, “History of the Chippewa of Sarnia”, 1950).

“Snowshoes were made many ways: the round snowshoe, the snowshoe with a tail, and the, turned up toe snowshoe. All had a wooden frame with a net across the opening. A wooden sort was used with a thong across the toes. They are usually made of Ash the wood being bent by heating it. Rawhide strips were often used for the netting. Horsehide was a favorite, as it does not shrink or stretch when wet. Intestines and sinew were also used. The round shoe was like a bear print. Emergency snowshoes were made of unpeeled branches laced with basswood fiber” (Densmore, Chippewa Customs).

CANOES

The Algonquins were the experts of canoe men on the continent, in both building and using them. Villages had large numbers of canoes, especially those who were traders. 

Some were designed for speed and others for safety. Nanabozho had taught them, to make canoes as well as bows, arrows, and all other useful things. 

Ojibwe canoes were of many kinds and sizes, some small, others massive. 

“Indian canoes were 15 feet long and used for visiting between villages. The north canoe was 25 feet long and was the canoe used in long distance travel and for warriors. This canoe held eight men, plus supplies and weaponry. The Montreal canoe was 36 feet; it was used for trading freight. It held 3,000 to 4,000 pounds of furs” (David Plain). 

“Dugout canoes were made of a single tree, a very large tree. They were made of basswood, cottonwood, and soft maple. The wood is soft, porous, and very buoyant. The average dugout was 12 to 16 feet long. To dig it out, crosswise cuts are made a foot apart, and the wood is split off lengthwise between the cuts. Then a small pick axe is used to carve out the interior, leaving a four to six inch, outer wall; a chisel was used to smooth the walls. On the outside, a draw knife or ordinary knife was used to shape the bow, and stern, keel, and the top edge. In primitive times, bone knives and sharp clam shells were used. Fire may be used to dry and polish the wood. 

For bark canoes, the bark is cut away in one long strip. In early spring is the best time when the sap is flowing to gather bark. The bark is thick, about a thumb’s width, and very durable. Though rolled patch materials and pine tar pitch are carried for repairs. A man sits on the bottom of the canoe, not on the cross bracing, or a seat is slung across with a braided rope to sit on.  

Another way to seal the canoe and make it waterproof is by using glue made of sturgeon blubber, horn or hooves, or rawhide boiled down to a glue. Charcoal is added to make it set up” (C. Eastman, Indian Boyhood, main reference). 

In 1950, Nicholas Plain, Chief of Sarnia Chippewa, gives this description on canoe-making:

“First was to find a white birch tree large enough to provide a sheet of bark large enough to cover the widest part of the framework of the canoe to be built – that is, from rim to rim. When the tree is found, a scaffold is put up against the tree, and one of the men goes up with a sharp tool and cuts the bark straight down, and the bark is peeled off the tree and rolled in a bundle to be carried to the camping ground where it is unrolled on a level ground with the inside of the bark under, and the framework which is built by thin pieces of cedar is put on the bark which is stretched on the ground, and the bark is brought up to the frame and sewed on with cedar rootlets. And when the canoe is finished, it is made waterproof by a formula composed of pitch and other gummy substances of herbs. The lightness of the canoe makes it more suitable to carry heavy loads on the water than the dugout canoes made of basswood”. 

Toboggans were very useful. 

FISHING

Amaug was a fishing place. 

“We had fish lines made of hemp, sinew, or horsehair. Fish were caught with lines, snared, speared, or shot with a bow and arrow. We tickled them with a stick in fall and quickly threw them out. We dammed brooks, and they were driven into a willow basket made for that purpose” (Eastman). 

“Hatchet, nettle fiber, basswood strips, and horsehair were also used in fishing. Hooks were made of bone, shaped twigs, and other materials. 

Fishing was carried on all through the year. Nets, seine, hook, hatchets, spears, and weirs were used. Weirs are a kind of dam that leaves a channel for the fish to go through, and they are easily caught. Weirs were made with stone, sand, and logs. 

Weirs – kagun yoke – are built of logs, saplings, cord, rocks and sand, or mud. The weir is like a funnel, sometimes made to angle to a very narrow opening. Usually a person could walk along the top of the weir to use nets and spears to collect the catch.

During the runs of spring and fall, the men would go out into the rapids – Sauk or Sohk, meaning the outlet of a river or lake – and float down in canoes with long poles with a net on the end and scoop large quantities. This required great dexterity, standing in the canoes. The fish was then dried on racks and sometimes powdered by the women and children and stored for later use” (D. Plain).

In the fall, the fish came near the shore in great numbers in November. Sein nets, spearing at night, with a torch, traps, bait and hook, and by trolling were the methods used to harvest the fish. 

The nets were thoroughly washed and sometimes dipped in a concoction of sumac in water to disinfect them. 

For ice fishing, a hole was chopped in the ice to the water, a hole was made. Sometimes a man would cover his head and short spear with a blanket to keep the light out. A frame was used like a large basket, which was covered with a blanket, decoy fish were near the surface of the water. The spear when thrown or shot loosened itself from the handle but was attached to a strong line which was drawn out. Covering the hole caused it to be illumined and, like an aquarium, the quiet water under the ice is very clear and the fish are easily seen as they swim into the baited hole. 

Nets were also used in ice fishing. 

“Spearing by torchlight, flambeau, was done at night along the shorelines of the waterways. A rolled bark torch was held over the bow – front of the boat – on a pole, the light lured the fish to be seen and speared by a long-pronged harpoon spear. 

The canoe was navigated by two Indians, usually a man and a boy, the darkest nights being the most successful. The man in front directs the boy to steer from the rear – stern. The catch of catfish, pike, and perch was plenteous, fifty or more lights moving upon the smooth lake in every direction” (John Rutherford, Indian captive, narrative at what is now Pine Grove Park and Lake Huron, Port Huron, MI. 1763).

Lake trout were also ice-fished or any other species that appeared in the hole. 

WHITEFISH – ADDIKUMAIG OR ATTICAMEG – THE DEER OF THE WATER

Whitefish were the main catch. They were abundant at Aamjiwnaang – “The Spawning Stream”, St. Clair River, Sarnia, Port Huron, Fort Gratiot on Lake Huron, and throughout the Strait. The people dried tons of fish. They would gather in great numbers during the spring runs and through the summer and fall runs. The drying racks were stacked eight feet tall near the beach at the foot of Lake Huron. 

Michilimackinac was also a wonderful place to catch whitefish. Sault Ste. Marie, on the St. Mary’s River at the foot of the falls, was fish central for the Northern tribes. 

The fish was dried and packed for storing in cache pits for later use. When used, it was usually finely crumbled and cooked with corn and in many other ways. 

A scoop net was used to catch whitefish. They averaged three pounds; some were six to nine pounds. They had the mouth of a sucker with firm white flesh. There were very few bones when boiled, they were also grilled, battered and fried in butter, or chowder or in a pie (Schoolcraft 30 years Among the Indians). 

STURGEON – NAMAI OR KABASSAK

Lake sturgeon are bottom feeders. Most adults weigh 200 pounds and are about seven feet long. The females are the larger. They like a warm water temperature and return to spawn in streams. The males live to about 55 years, and females can live to 100 years. They spawn every four to five years.  

White men considered them “trash fish” and killed them when they damaged nets. 

Sturgeon, were plentiful. They were huge, sometimes weighing 100 to 300 pounds and were six to eight feet long at maturity.

In 1889, four million pounds of fish were harvested with 4,000 pounds of caviar. Detroit was the center for sturgeon buying and selling. 

Lake trout commonly weighed 50 pounds.  

The Ottissippi (St. Clair River) was the spawning stream where the sturgeon and many other kinds of fish laid their eggs, and spawn. 

In Saginaw Bay every spring, they swam in large numbers to lay their eggs in shallow water near shore. They were easy prey. Wading into the water, the fisherman speared them, stunned them with a club, or picking them up, threw them on shore to be killed with knives by the women and children. 

There are over 70 varieties of fish in the waters of the Strait – Detroit, St. Clair River, and Detroit River. Sturgeon, whitefish, pickerel, quansig or walleye, perch, bass, catfish, sunfish, smelt, crappie, herring, salmon, trout, pike, bullhead, and blue gill, to name a few. 

FOWL

Turkeys, partridges, grouse, pheasants, and pigeons were plentiful. 

All the fowl flying about created natural fertilizer over the land, creating a very fertile growing place. The great Mississippi and Atlantic flyway passing through the area made for lots of fertilizer without cost. Many birds could be a nuisance to crops, but a great harvest was still collected and stored. 

The passenger pigeon was in such great numbers that it would be in flock’s miles long and wide, the great numbers creating a shadow upon the ground as they passed. The pigeons were caught in nets in great numbers and eaten, cooked in myriad ways. These pigeons persisted into the 1900s. 

As a child, I remember seeing many pigeons. Many of the boys in those days were encouraged to shoot the birds, like blackbirds, as being a nuisance. 

WATER FOWL

Ducks were killed in countless numbers, their noise like the roar of heavy thunder. They were so thick, they had to part for the canoe to make a path through them. 

This area is part of the great Atlantic and Mississippi flyway. Untold thousands of waterfowl pass through the area, the marshes and waterways supplying food in abundance for them. They follow the lakes’ and rivers’ paths on to their winter grounds. 

The Indians used decoys to lure fowl in close at times. Decoys were made of the skins of ducks and geese; they were dried and stuffed with hay, the feet attached to a plank which floats around the hut of grass. They drew wonderful numbers. 

Swans were once very plentiful in the area waterways. 

Canadian geese are abundant, and some, make the area their home year round. 

The feathers and other parts of fowl were not wasted; the bills were used for maple sugar molds for pacifiers. 

The loon is a waterfowl of the penguin species, the size of a goose. It is black and white; having a white ring around its neck, the back and neck are spotted black on white. Their skins are used by the Natives as pouches. The loon lives on small fish. When pursued, it will dive under water for a long time. 

WILD RICE

Wild rice was also known as “Zizania Aquatica, or mano min, meaning good fruit or berry. Psina is the Sioux name. Folle avoine, the French name. Wild, mad, or false oat or wild kick were other names for it.  

Wild rice – wild oats – is the choice for waterfowl, fish, and Indians, who harvest great quantities of it for consumption. It is used in soups and stews and parched for travel. 

Stalks are one inch in diameter, it grows four to twelve feet above the surface of the water, and it is an annual, the rice falling to the bottom of a muddy water and producing every year. It was once abundant in Lake St. Clair, Georgian Bay, Lake Erie, and throughout the Bluewater area and North America. It grew in countless small ponds and streams. 

It is harvested in autumn, when the sugar trees are as red as the robin breast. It is narrow, a quarter by one inch long, and is gathered by canoe after having been tied in bundles to prevent the flocks from eating it. It is then bent over and left to ripen for two to three weeks, making collecting it easier and marking out the territory to others. It also protects it from rain and wind. There is a one-month harvest; the women pound out the rice into the canoe with a stick. The rice is then dried in the sun or a slow fire, the hull then rubbed off by shaking it in a blanket or treading on it, winnowing by the wind, or fanning by trays of birch bark, in the old way. There is great celebration of this harvest with festivities and ceremony. 

Minnesota is the large production area for wild rice. It takes a bit longer to cook than other rice. It is not a true rice. It is highly nutritious, having much protein in it. The rice swells to 3 or 4 times its size. It is eaten extensively among Indians and was a cause for many wars over the rice beds” (Albert Ernest Jenks, “Wild Rice Gatherers”, was the main source). 

Wild Rice can also be popped (like popcorn) and is delicious. Barb Barton

Rice fields in many lakes are threatened by homeowners wanting to eradicate it. Wild rice is a protected species. There are people, who are reintroducing wild rice in Michigan and other places. 

All wildlife, were respected as members of the Great Spirit – God’s creation; they had a spirit and purpose in creation and were never killed for sport, but a necessary sustenance. It was always accompanied with ritualistic ceremony, offerings, fasting, and prayer. It was very serious to take and use something from Mother Earth. Thanksgiving offerings were always made to the spirit (essence or life power) of any harvest, a part of the creation family. They were part of the universal relatedness of all things. 

Careful consideration of the effect of their actions was always in the forefront of hunting, fishing, and gathering practices. All were gifts given by the Great Spirit; they were not seen as being entitled to the gifts of Mother Earth, and they were thankful for everything given to them by Gitchi Manito – The Great Spirit. 

Conservation has always been the way for Anishinabe to live. They always left animals to repopulate what was taken and used for food, for the future wellbeing of the animals or plants and the people themselves. 

The social life of the Anishinabe included games played by the family or larger groups. Games of chance and those of skill were the favorites. 

The moccasin game was popular and widespread. Some small object, a stone or piece of bone was hidden under one of a number of moccasins, by a player. The other contestant was to choose the correct placement. Bets were laid on the outcome. It was not unusual to discover, losing a gun, tobacco, pipe, and clothing. 

A sort of dice game was played with marked wood; these were tossed up into the air and matching the pieces of marked wood. 

Wrestling and other athletic contest running, racing, catching an object with a bag or hoop, shooting, and throwing for accuracy or distance, were common. Water games and canoe games were always fun, small family groups played for fun. 

In larger groups, a spirit of rivalry was strong. In the game of lacrosse, large teams played a sort of soccer. It was a great contest, like a football game: village against village. 

To purchase a copy of Cheryl’s book, Ottissippi, click here.

Bibliography

Bibliography

Andreas. History of St. Clair County, Michigan. University of Michigan, 1884. Quod.lib.umich.edu

Armstrong, Virginia Irving. I Have Spoken: Indian Oratory. Swallow Press, 1971. ISBN – 10: 0804005303, 13: 978-0804005302

Askin, John. Papers Vol. 1, 1747-1795, 1928; Vol. 2, 1796-1820, 1931, includes Father Dennison, Biographies of Early Detroit and Canada. Milo Quaife/Burton Historical Collection.

Bald, Clever. Michigan in Four Centuries. Brown, 1954. www

Banai, Edward Benton. The Seven Fires, The Mishomis Book, and The Voice of the Ojibway. UMN Press, 1988. 9780816673827

Barnes, John T., honorary Chippewa Chief. Lambton, 1967.

Beardslee, Lois. The Modern Indian. 1995.

Belfy, Phil. Three Fires Unity: The Anishinabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands. University of Nebraska Press, 2011.

Benz, Williamson, and Ekdahl. Diba Jimooyung, Telling Our Story: A History of the Saginaw Ojibwe Anishinabek. Saginaw Chippewa, Mt. Pleasant, MI: Ziibiwing Cultural Society, 2005. 978-0-9672331-1-6

Berkhoffer, Robert F., Jr. The White Man’s Indian. NY: Vintage Books, Random House, 1979.

Blackbird, Andrew. The History of the Ojibwe Indian. www

Bonhomme, Draper. Papers. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.

Brakeman, Nancy. Remembrances of Mrs. Peter Brakeman. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.

Burton Historical Library. Detroit, Michigan.

Burton, Clarence. 1896, Cadillac Village or Detroit under Cadillac, 1853-1932. Hathi Trust. Burton, Clarence. Beginnings of Michigan, Hathi Trust, and the City of Detroit, 1701-1922. S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1922. www

Cameron, Herman E. Memorial Foundation, “Kah Wam Da Meh” (“We See Each Other”). 1988. Jean Frazier.

Chaput Collection, Papers, Indian Place Names, Michigan Archives, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI.

Cleland, Charles E. Rites of Conquest. University of Michigan Press, 1992.

Clifton, James A., George L. Cornell, and James McClurken. People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway of Michigan. Grand Rapids Intertribal Council, 1986.

Copeway, George (John). The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibwa Nation, 1850. Indian Life and Indian History, 1860. www

Crawford, Kim. The Daring Trader: Jacob Smith in the Michigan Territory 1802-1825. Michigan State University Press, 2012.

Densmore, Francis. Chippewa Customs. 1979.

Deur, Nishnawbe. 1981.

Diba Jimoojung, Telling Our Story: A History of the Saginaw Ojibwe Anishinabek, Mtl. Pleasant, MI: Ziibiwing Cultural Society, 2005. 978-0-9672331-1-6

Dixson. Life at the Flats, 1999, St. Clair Memories. Mt. Clemons, MI. 586-242-2222

Eastman, Charles. The Soul of the Indian, The Indian Today and as He Was, From the Deep Woods to Civilization, and Indian Boyhood. 1902. www

Echert, Allan W. A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. Wilderness Empire, 1992. Little Brown & Co.

Eicher, Al and Dave. The Indian History of Michigan’s Thumb, The Orphan Train. Program Source. Com.

Elford, Jean Turnbull. Canada, West’s Last Frontier: A History of Lambton. Ontario: Lambton County Historical Society, 1982.

Emmert. Michigan Historical Collection, Vol. 47.

Ewing, Wallace K. Ph. D, Footprints: Stories of Native Americans in West Central Michigan,2016

Farmer, Silas. History of Detroit and Michigan, Vol 2. 1884. www

Farrand, Mrs. B.C. The Indians at Sarnia, Wyoming, Ontario, Lambton Archives.

Farrel, David. The Detroit Fur Trade, Dissertation, 1865, U of W, Milwaukee, Michigan Archives, Lansing, MI.

Flocken. Chiefs. University of Minnesota, 2013. www

Fowle. “Sault Ste. Marie and Michigan”. G.P. Putnam ‘s and Sons, 1925. www

Frazier, Jean. Kah Wam Da Heh. Herman E. Cameron Foundation, 1988.

Fuller, George N. Historic Michigan: Land of the Great Lakes, 1917-1941, Vol. 1. MPHC, MHC, 1944, National Historic Assoc., 1924. Dayton, OH: University of Michigan. www

Fuller, George N. Local History and Personal Sketches of St. Clair and Shiawassee Counties; Historic Michigan, 1873; A Centennial History of the State and Its People, 1939. The Lewis Publishing Co. Hathi Trust. Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. www

Greaux, Joe. Woodland Metis Ojibwe Peace Chief. 2014 Author Interview.

Hatt, Richards. The Sanilac Petroglyphs. Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1958. Bulletin No. 36. Papworth, Butterfield/Port Sanilac Museum.

Hebner, Marilyn and Diana. SCCFHG, MIGC, Immigration Papers.

Helbig, Althea K. Nanabozhoo, Giver of Life. Brighton, MI: Green Oak Press, 1987. 0931600065/9780931600067

Hennepin, Louis. A New Discovery. Description of Louisiana, 1683. www

Hinsdale, Wilbert B. The Archaeological Atlas of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library, 1928. www

Hodgins, Bruce W. Canoeing Fur Trade, 1994. Toronto Heritage. www

Hodgins. Ontario Genealogical Society.

Hotchkiss, George W. History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest. 1898. SCC Library, Michigan Room.

Howard, Nancy. Diary, 1813. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library.

Hudgins. Detroit Papers. Wayne University.

Hudgins. The Biodiversity Atlas of Lake Huron to Lake Erie. EPA, 2002. www

Jenks and Clark Papers, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.

Jenks, William L. St. Clair County Centennial and Homecoming Celebration. 1921. www

Jenks, William L. The History of St. Clair County, Michigan: Biographical Memoirs of St. Clair County. Vol. 2. Chicago and NY: University of Michigan, The Lewis Publishing Co., 1912. quod.lib.umich.edu

Jenness. Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwe Children. 1954. www

Johnson, Ida A. The Michigan Fur Trade. Lansing MI Historical Commission, 1919.

Johnston, A.J. Lambton County Place Names. Sarnia, ON: Lambton County Council, 1925. Revised 1942, 2nd Edition. Wyoming, ON: Lambton Archives, 2008.

Jones, Rev. Peter. The History of the Ojibwe Indians. 1861. www

Kellogg, Louise P. “Early Narratives of the Northwest, 1634-1699”. 1897. NY: Barnes and Noble, 1953. www

Kienietz. Traditional Ojibwa Religion. Library of Michigan.

Lahonton, Louis A. “Voyages to New France”. 1703. www; “Voyages to North America II” with Thwaites. www; and “Travels Through Louisiana”. www

Lambton Archives. Wyoming, Ontario.

Landon, Fred. Lake Huron, 1944. Bobbs-Merrill Co., Quaife, WHS.

Lanman, Charles. The Red Book of Michigan 1819-1895, 1855. E. B. Smith & Co. Philip Solomons, 1871. quod.lib.umich.edu

Laubin, Reginald and Gladys. The Indian Tipi. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.

Lauriston, Victor. Lambton’s 100 Years, 1849-1949. Beers Book, 1906. Our Roots, 2006. U of Calgary.

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien. How Natives Think. Lilian A. Clare. 1910, 1927. 9781614277866

Lewis, Kenneth E. West to Far Michigan. MSU Press, 2002.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. The New Press, 1995, 2007. 9780743296281

Lossing, Benton J. Pictorial Field Book of the War of 1812. 1869/Bill Carr, 2001, Free Pages History, Roots Web, Ancestry.com

Lowrie and Clark. American State Papers and Military Affairs. 1832.

Marantette Papers, Fur Trade, Michigan Archives.

Mason. Culture. 1997.

Mayhew, Eugene J. Fort Sinclair: The British Roots of St. Clair, Michigan. St. Clair Historical Commission, 2003.

McKenny. Native Advocate. 1959.

Means, Russell. Where White Men Fear to Tread. St. Martin’s Press, 1996.

Methodist Ministry in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI, Michigan Archives, Lansing, MI.

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection. www

Mitts, Dorothy Marie. That Noble Country: The Romance of the St. Clair River Region. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Co., 1968. Dorothy Mitts was a newspaper columnist for the Port Huron Times Herald in the mid-1900s. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library

MOHC,  Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History

Moore, Charles. History of Michigan, Vol. 4. The Lewis Publishing Co., 1915. www

MPHC, 1890, Annual Meeting, Granny Rodd, Harrington. Methodist Ministry in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI

MPHC, Vol. 1, O.C. Thompson, Early St. Clair County History.

MPHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History.

MPHC, Vol. 4, Mack and Miller Distillery, Harsens Island. “Recollections of Aura Stewart”, 1881, pg. 346.

MPHC, Vol. 6, 1883, Autobiography of Eber Ward.

MPHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History.

MPHC, Vol. 11, 1887, Wm. L. Bancroft, Duperon Baby, Slavery.

MPHC, Vol. 17, 1793, Friends Micellany, Gage, Trade, 1762, Early History of St. Clair County, Mrs. B.C. Farrand.

Vol. 20, List of Indian Locations and Numbers.

Vol. 26, Treaty of Saginaw, 1817, 1819. Enos Goodrich, 1896, Early Detroit.

Vol. 28, Calvin J. Thorpe, Trade, Harrington, D.C. Walker, Northern Slavery.

Vol. 29, 1899, Jane M. Kinney, Clyde Twp.

Vol. 38, Emigration.

Vol. 47, Prescott, Emmert, Religion, Williams, Disease.

Vol. 52, David Farrel, Settlement along the Detroit Frontier,  1860-1796.

Methodist Ministries in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, Michigan. www

Munson, John. Michigan Historical Commission, British History, MI Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.

Nearing, Scott. The Maple Sugar Book. 1950. 9781890132637. Chelsea Green, 2000.

Nelson, Larry L. A Man of Distinction Among Them, Alexander McKee. Kent State UP, 1999.

Niehardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks, 1932. State University of New York Press, 2008.

Orange, Patricia. Lambton County, Ontario Ojibwe History. Wyoming, ON: Lambton Archives, 1975.

Parkins, Almon E. The Historical Geography of Detroit, 1879 – 1940. Lansing MI Historical Commission, 1918. www

Parkman. The Conspiracy of Pontiac. 1763. www

Plain, Alymer N. History of Sarnia Reserve. 1950, Lambton Archives.

Plain, Aylmer N. Osarkodawa in Retrospect, 1975. Sarnia Reserve and Ojibwe History. G. Smith.

Plain, David D. The Plains of Aamjiwnaang: Our History. Trafford Publishing, 2007.

Plain, David. 1300 Moons. Trafford Publishing, 2011.

Plain, David. From Quisconson to Caughnowaga. Trafford Publishing, 2015.

Plain, Nicholas. Sarnia Reserve History of, and History of the Chippewa of Sarnia. 1950, 1951.

Playter, George F. The History of Methodism in Canada. Canadian Methodist Historical Society, 1862. www

Prescott, William. A History of Michigan Methodism, The Father Still Speaks, Worldcat. 1941. www

Quimby. Culture. 1960.

Reid, Joyce. Papers. Deckerville, MI: 2014. (Joyce has devoted her life to education in the spiritual, music, and Indian history. She has received many honors for her work. She has hosted an annual Indian Day in Deckerville for 30 years, never forgetting her own heritage once she found that she had Native blood as a young woman.)

River, Charles. The Chippewa Native American Tribes: The History and Culture of. Editor. 2014.

Roufs, Chiefs, Culture, 2006, U. O. Oklahoma.

Schenk, Theresa M. The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar: The Sociopolitical Organization of the Lake Superior Ojibwe, 1640-1855. Garland Pub. Inc., 1997.

Schmaltz, Peter S. The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario. University of Toronto Press, 1991.

Schoolcraft, Henry. 30 Years among the Indians, 1848, 1851, Travels in Minnesota and Wisc. 1821. www

Smith, Donald B. and Rogers, Edward S. Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations. Dundurn, 1994/2012.

Smith, Donald B. Kahkewaquonaby, Peter Jones, “Sacred Feathers” (Sacred Waving Feathers). University of Toronto. www

Smith, Donald B. Missisauga Portraits: Ojibwe Voices from Nineteenth Century Canada. University of Toronto, 2013. www

Sonnenberg, Lemke, and John M. O’Shea. “Caribou Hunting in the Upper Great Lakes”. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology Memoir 57, Anthropological Archaeology.

Speck, Gordon. Breeds and Halfbreeds. C. N. Potter, 1969. ASIN BOOR1ZLG8M

Spencer, Lynn. History of Petroglyph Park. M.913.87 – Michigan Printing Co., Bad Axe, MI/Port Sanilac Museum.

Stanley, Margueritte. From Whence We Came. 1977. Port Huron Library.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. Oxford, 1992. 0 – 19 507581 – 1, 0 – 19 – 508557 – 4, PBK

Tanner, Helen H. and Voegelin, Ermine W. Indians of Northern Ohio and Southeastern Michigan: An ethnohistorical report (American Indian Ethnohistory: North Central and North Eastern). Garland Publishing, 1975. Copyright Creative Commons.

Tanner, Helen H. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Newberry Library, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Tanner, Helen H. The Chippewa of Lower Michigan.

Tanner, Helen H. The Ojibwe. Newberry Library: Chelsea House Publishers, NY, Philadelphia, 1992.

The Clark Library of Western History, CMU, Mt. Pleasant, MI.

The History of Macomb County, Michigan. www

The History of Saginaw County, Michigan. www

The History of Warren, Michigan. www

The History of Wayne County, Michigan. www

The Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County. www

The Indians at Sarnia. Mrs. B. C. Farrand, Wyoming, Ontario: Lambton Archives.

The Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI.

Thom, James A. Panther in the Sky. NY: Ballantine Books, 1989.

Thom, James A. Long Knife. NY: Ballantine Books, 1979.   

Tunkashila, Gerald H. Indian Mythology and History. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.

Utley, Henry M. Michigan as a Province, Territory and State. Vol. 4. 1906. www

Vecsey, Christopher. Traditional Ojibwe Religion. www

Warner, Robert. Economic and History Report on Royce Area 66.

Warren, William W. History of the Ojibwe People. 1885. www

We See Each Other. Frazier/Herman Cameron Foundation.

Western Historical Co. The History of St. Clair County, Michigan. www

Wilson, William E. Shooting Star – The Story of Tecumseh. NY: J.J. Little and Ives Co., 1942.

Woolworth, Dearborn Historical Society, Detroit Indians, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library.

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States, 1492-Present. 20th Anniversary Edition. Harper Collins, 1999.

ONLINE SITES

African Holocaust, Indian Holocaust, Wole Soyika, www

Andreas, History of St. Clair County, MI. 1884, www

Angel Fire, Native History, www

Archaeological Atlas of Michigan, Hindsdale, 1928, University of Michigan www

Bureau of Indian Affairs Apology to Native Americans, Tuhtonka, World Future Feed, www

Blackwater River People, www

Black Elk, www

Blackhawk, www

Bodewatomi History and Culture, www

Burton, Clarence, Beginnings of Michigan, Cadillac, www

Canadian Indian History, www

Cannon, Mounds, 1973, www

Chippewa History, E How, www

City Data, Michigan History, Indian Allies, www

Constantin, Phil, Ojibwe Calendar, www

Davis, Thomas J., African, Indian Americans, Arizona State University, www

Decolonization, www

Detroit Historical Society, 1872, Slavery in the Early 1800s, Detroit Michigan, J.S. Girardin, www

dickshovel.com, www

Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, www

Ehow, www

Flocken, University of Minnesota, 2013, Chiefs, www

From the Deep Woods to Civilization, The Soul of the Indian, Charles Eastman, www

Genealogy Trails, Fuller, Slavery, www

Gulewitsch, Victor, 1995, Chippewa of Kettle and Stoney Point, Historical Claims Commission Research Office, www

Hathi Trust, wonderful source of historical writings, www

Hennepin, A New Discovery, Description of Louisiana, 1683, www

Historic Saugeen Metis, Patsy McArthur/B.C. Farrand, Upper Detroit to Saugeen, Lower Lake Huron’s Metis and Trade, Upper Region of the Detroit River, Lake Huron Watersheds, Bruce Peninsula, Inverhuron Learning Center, Southampton, Ontario, 2013, www

History of Canada and Canada West, www

History of Canadian Indians, 1763-1840, Marionopolis College, www

History of Macomb County, Michigan, www

History of Methodism in Canada, George Frederick Playter, 1862, www

History of Michigan, www

History of the Ojibwe Indians, Andrew Blackbird, www

History of the Ojibwe Indians, Rev. Peter Jones, 1861, www

History of Saginaw County, MI, www

History of St. Clair County, MI, Western Historical Co., www

History of Warren, MI, www

History of Wayne County, MI, www

Hodgins, Bruce W., Canoeing Fur Trade, 1994, Toronto Heritage, www

Hudgins, Wayne University, Detroit, Papers, www

Indian Affairs: Law and Treaties, Oklahoma State University, OSU, www

Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County, MI, www

Indian Boyhood, Charles Eastman, www

Indian History Timeline, www

Indian Law, www

Indians. Org. Culture, www

Ipperwash Commission of Inquiry historical background, Attngen.jus.gov.on.ca

Iroquois, www

Isabella County, MI, Gen. Web, www

Jenks, A. E., Wild Rice Gatherers, 1900, www

Jenks, Wm. L., History of St. Clair County, MI, 1912, Biographical Memoirs of St. Clair County, Vol. 2, St. Clair County Centennial and Homecoming Celebration, 1921, www

Jews and African History, Halle, Selassie, www

Kugel, 1998, Treaties, www

Lahonton, Louis Armand, De Lom D’Arce, Baron De La Honton, Voyages to New France, 1703, Voyages to North America II/Thwaites, Travels through Louisiana, www

Lanman, History of MI from Its Earliest Colonization, www

Lejeunesse, E. J., The Windsor Border Region: Canada’s Southernmost Frontier, www

Lexington MI history, www

Liberty Law Site, www

Lincoln Quotes, www

Little Turtle, Canada History, www

Losser, A., Ojibwe Culture, www

Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, www

Macomb, William, Memoir, www

McArthur, Patsy and Farrand, B.C. Historic Saugeen Metis. Southampton, ON: Inverhuron Learning Center, 2013. www

Metis History Timeline, Canadian History, a Distinct Viewpoint, www

Metis History, www

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection, MPHC, Vol. 40, www

Mills, James Cooke, History of the Saginaw Chippewa, 1918, www

Missisauga Eagle Tribe, www

Moore, Charles, History of MI, Vol. 4, The Lewis Publishing Co., 1915, www

MSU, MSU Libraries, Map Library, Scanned Maps of MI, www

Mystic Detroit, Patriot War, www

Native American Apology, Dr. Mary Harmar, Ontario Canada, www

Native Tec. Pierre Girard, www

Ojibwe Culture, Kevin Callahan, UMN, www

Ojibwe History, Migration to the Great Lakes, www

Ojibwe Indian History Timeline, www

Ojibwe Whoa, , www

Ontario Encyclopedia, www

Papal Bulls, www

Parkins, Almon Ernest, The Historical Geography of Detroit, 1918, www

Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 1763, www

Porterfield, Kay, 10 Lies about Indigenous Science, www

Prescott, Wm., Native Religion, 1941, Worldcat, www

Project Gutenberg, the American Indian, Alexander Henry, and Henry Schoolcraft, www

Sarnia, Wikipedia, www

Schoolcraft, Henry, 30 Years among the Indians, 1848, 1851, Travels in Minnesota and Wisc., 1821, www

Smith, Donald B., Missisauga Portraits: Ojibwe Voices from Nineteenth Century Canada, 2013, U.O. Toronto, www

Students on Site, Native American Missions and Schools, www

Sturdevant, Treaties, 1978, www

The Canadian Truth Commission Report, www

The History of County Creation, CMU, excellent site, www

The History of the County of Middlesex, Canada, Godspeed Publishing, 1889, www

The Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County, www

The Indian Today and as He Was, Charles Eastman, www

The Lies about when Slavery Ended, Denise Oliver Velez, 2012, www

The Pokagon Bodewadmi, Pottawatomi, www

The Soul of the Indian, Charles Eastman, www

The Truth about Slavery, www

The Westbrooks Ontario, www

The Writings of Cadillac, www

Tinker, George, Osage School of Theology, www

Tolatsga, Tolatsga.org, Coral Painter Magazine, www,  First Nations Site map, First Nations Histories, Lee Stultzman, Tolatsga.org

Travers, Karen Jean, Dissertation, Seeing with Two Eyes, Colonial Policy, The Huron Tract and Change 1780-1863, York University, 2015, Toronto, Canada

Treaty Texts, Upper Canada Land Surrenders, www

Turtle Nation Indians, www

Tutonka, World Future Feed, www

University of Oklahoma, Indian Affairs Law and Treaties, www

Upper Canada History, Early Canadian History Narrative, www

Vecsey, Christopher, Traditional Ojibwe Religion, www

War Bounty Lands, Ancestry, www

Western Historical Society, 1883, French History, Northwest and Indian History, www

When were Blacks Truly Freed from Slavery, Hillary Crosby, www

Whoa, dickshovel.com site map, First Nations Histories, Lee Stultzman, www

Wisconsin State Historical Society, Great Lakes Indian History, www

Wisconsin State Historical Society, Vol. 6, The Northwest 1817, Storrow Letters, www

WSHS, Collection of, Vol. 10, Blackhawk, www

Wyandottenation.org

PERIODICALS

Blue Water Indian Pow Wow, 1995, booklet

Friends of the St. Clair River Watershed, Brochure

Harpers Magazine, Vol. 98, Pokagon, Simon, The massacre of Fort Dearborn at Chicago, 1899, www

Marine City Gazette, 1876, Western Historical Co., Aura Stewart, Early St. Clair County

Michigan Archeology, Vol. 3, 1957, Richard A. Pohrt, War Club

North American Review, 1830, Jackson Treaties

Sarnia Observer, Shirley Brownlee, 1857, Lumbering, Barnes, Ojibwe, 1967

Saturday Evening Post, 1947, Robert Murphy, Mother Rodd

The Detroit News Tribune, 1896, Dixon, Mother Rodd

The Penny Magazine, April 29, 1837, Ontario, Canada

The Smithsonian, 2014, Amanda Foreman, The Birth of American Freedom and the Founding of the Union

This book came about after a visit to the library where I could not find local Indian History. I grew up in the St. Clair and Black River area of Michigan, fishing on all the area waters with my father and brothers. I loved books, libraries, horses and puzzles; I was not a tech person. I love to cook, garden, travel, and camp. I was determined to find and share the truth. This has been a difficult journey in every way. I give you, the reader, the truth and blessings I also reaped. Cheryl Morgan

Cheryl Morgan lives near Port Huron, Michigan with her husband Tom and dog Fred.

Don’t forget to “like ” us on Facebook!

Related posts

Starlites: We’re A Family!

Laurie Charron

Friends of the St. Clair River Launches New Sturgeon Stories Contest: Community Edition

Blue Water Healthy Living

Ottissippi: BWHL OTTISSIPPI Excerpts Ch. 8 #2

Cheryl L. Morgan

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.