By Cheryl Morgan
The indigenous peoples were mostly very healthy and had long lives. When the Norsemen came to the eastern shores, they brought their germs with them. The Norsemen who fished the Atlantic Maritimes brought disease in 1001 A.D. The death rate was very high, and 70 to 90% of the people died. The explorers and missionaries also brought disease and, through their contact with the native peoples, caused great devastation among the Native Americans.
Immigration brought much illness, famine, and hardship, along with the grieving of the loss of their loved ones. The Europeans also suffered from disease and epidemics. In the Lakes region of Michigan in the heat of summer, myriads of mosquitos and poisonous insects, miasmatic vapors of decaying soil, and fetid bogs caused a malarial fever and dysentery.
The Eastern Seaboard and the Maritimes were the first areas to suffer the consequences. Through their contact with other indigenous peoples and the White Man. The Anishinabe people of the Northwest at the time were greatly affected. Whole villages and peoples were wiped out. So many died, and the people rushed away from outbreaks that the dead were not buried at times. A once very numerous people were reduced time and again in very large numbers. Many of their great leaders and many, many family members were lost, causing untold suffering.
The native peoples had no immunity to these diseases and germs brought amongst them. The medicines and the Medicine Men had no effect for the curing of any of these new plagues and epidemics. Smallpox, cholera, diphtheria, scarlet fever, chicken pox, whooping cough, measles, mumps, consumption (tuberculosis), scarletina, typhoid, and dysentery wreaked havoc and ravaged through the land.
Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by watery diarrhea and vomiting. It is spread by eating or drinking water contaminated with the bacterium. People can die within hours of infection from dehydration. It usually occurs when human feces from a person who has the disease seeps into a community water supply. It also lives in warm, brackish waters.
Smallpox is an infectious disease known as pox or red plague. It causes a huge rash and blisters. It also causes blindness. It had a very high rate of death in Native Americans, as there was no immunity. The incubation period is around 12 days. Once inhaled, it invades the body like a viral disease, bringing muscle pain, malaise, headache, and prostration. The digestive tract is often involved; fever, nausea, vomiting, and backache often occur, lasting two to four days. By the twelfth to fifteenth day, lesions looking like red spots appear in the mouth and throat. These lesions rapidly enlarge and rupture, releasing large amounts of the virus into the saliva. A rash develops over the body, and some forms bleed into the skin.
Trachoma blindness was among the Indian diseases; it is caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis. It is an infection of the eye and, left untreated, can lead to blindness.
Following is nearly every instance of these epidemics that affected the Great Lakes Indians, though this will not cover all the sickness that the people suffered.
1617: The Great Plague falls on the Ohio Valley tribes.
1634: European diseases killed half of the Hurons. They had no immunity to these new biological weapons.
1635-1640: “smallpox, influenza, and measles brought misery to the Huron traders and Wyandot Middlemen; half of the peoples were lost to the diseases” (Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, Ojibwe History, www).
1639: Smallpox ravaged the Hurons.
1677: “an epidemic hit the Great Lakes tribes thought to be a flu virus” (Tanner).
1681: “smallpox again strikes Sault Saint Marie, New France” (Metis Timeline, Canadian History a Distinct Viewpoint, info/metis.aspx, www).
1751: “smallpox swept the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley” (Dickshovel, Huron History).
1752: M. De Longueuil wrote of the smallpox commits ravages; it begins to reach Detroit. Over eighty Indians died of the disease at adjacent villages, including Chief Kinousaki, who was much attached to the French.
1757-1758: “smallpox came among the people and many were lost. It was brought back from the New York, Iroquois Peace Treaty to the villages. It swept through the Great Lakes in the winter” (Tanner).
1764: At Fort Pitt, the Indians were given blankets infested with smallpox. As a result, it raged through the Delaware, Ottawa, and Ojibwe camps all summer into 1764.
1766: “smallpox again brought devastation to the Great Lakes peoples” (Tanner).
1780: Smallpox ravaged the whole of New France.
1793: A smallpox epidemic swept through the Lake Simcoe communities. After the American Revolution, mass immigration began. Ten thousand refugees (United Empire Loyalists) and soldiers came to upper Canada of which Michigan was a part at that time.
1813: An epidemic of whooping cough and typhoid attacked the Great Lakes people.
1832: A great cholera epidemic started at Detroit and moved with the soldiers sent to the Black Hawk War.
1834: “cholera was brought among the People” (Tanner).
1836 and 1837: “in the Saginaw Basin Country, smallpox ravaged the people. Two-thirds of the Ojibwe numbers were lost” (Tanner).
B.O. Williams describes the results of the 1837 smallpox as follows:
Thus, whole villages and bands were decimated, and during the summer and fall many were left without a burial at the camps in the woods, and were devoured by the wolves. I visited the village of Cheassining (Big Rock Village) now called Chesaning, and saw in the summer camps, several bodies, only partially covered up and not a living soul could I find except one Old Squaw that was convalescent. We afterwards sent some flour and other provisions to the few that remained. Judge Dexter, of the Village of Dexter, gave me ten dollars to assist them to flour. Most of the adults attacked died and it is a remarkable fact that no White person ever took the disease from them, although in many instances the poor, emaciated creatures, visited White families while covered with pustules and scabs. (Emmert/Williams, Shiawasee County, MHC, vol. 47)
The disease broke up the bands, some fled to Canada and others to the West. Some remained in the area living on what they could find in their wanderings or begging. A number of Indians, remained in the villages in South Saginaw County and occasionally came into Shiawassee County. (Emmert, MHC, vol. 47)
1870: “Smallpox again struck the tribes” (Tanner).
1870s and 1880s: The Indians living at Lake Nepessing, near Lapeer, were struck, and most of them died, wiping out the whole village. These were the Black River peoples.
1880s: More disease claimed the people through smallpox and diphtheria.
1889 and 1890: “an epidemic of influenza or La Grippe was common in the country and in Michigan in the winter and spring months of the years 1890-1891 and 1891-1892. Over a thousand deaths occurred from the influenza in 1890, 1891, and 1892” (25th annual report, MI, Secretary of State, Lansing, Robert Smith & Co. 1893).
1903: “smallpox struck near Detroit” (Farmer).
1918 and 1919: “influenza killed thousands worldwide” (Farmer), and “the Spanish Flu took its toll on the Reservation at Sarnia, Ontario” (Canada West Last Frontier).
“Death and Warfare became a major part of Anishinabe life in the woods and lakes of our land” (Diba Jimooyung, Zibiiwang, Saginaw Chippewa). In Metis History, www it is said that smallpox raged fiercely. The pretext of trade was used to open doors for trade and disease.
The Black Robes at Huron, when “Echon”, Jean De Brebeauf, the Jesuit, set foot in the Huron Country. he said, “I shall be here, so many years, I shall cause many to die. And then go elsewhere to do the same, until I have ruined, the whole land”. Echon is the most famous Black Robe sorcerer or Demon, it was a Genocide Policy of Biological Warfare.
The Huron informed the Neutrals, that the Black Robes were sorcerers and imposters come to take possession of their country”. Metis History, www
For Europeans, any illness also befell them. The most common was the ague and fever of a swampy country. Whiskey was the great medicinal element of backwoods life, a sovereign remedy for all prevailing ills. Malaria, ague, and bilious fever were common ailments.
The practice of bleeding was common; the priests shared this with the Indians. All physicians used bleeding at times. Some Native Americans were given vaccines for smallpox, but most were not.
“Flint blades were surgical instruments. The blades were so thin that the incisions made could not be duplicated until the advent of laser surgery. The indigenous peoples performed surgery and kept wounds sterile with botanical antiseptics. Syringes of bird bones and animal bladders were used to administer plant medicine. The indigenous people were the pioneers of using plant breeding genetics. Many pharmaceuticals came from traditional medicine of the indigenous peoples” (K. Porterfield, “10 Lies about Indigenous Science”). “More than two hundred drugs derived from plants for pharmacological uses were discovered by American Indians” (James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told me).
“Syringes and hypodermic needles from bird bones were attached to small bladders to inject medicines. There were large and small syringes for enemas, to irrigate wounds and clean ears. The bird bones – Nanandawi iwe winini – used for tube sucking were small hollowed bones two inches long” (Plain, 1300 Moons).
“There were over 2,500 uses for medicinal plant species. There were oral contraceptive plants.
“Pest controls were made from tobacco and other plants. Petroleum collection and extraction pits were used for ceremonial fires and lotion on skin. For baby bottles and formula, [the] washed, dried, and oiled intestines [were used, to contain milk] with a bird quill for a nipple” (10 inventions that changed the world. Indian Country Today, Media Network www).
“In 1682, (and before), Spruce Sap Beer was used for scurvy” (Metis Timeline, Canadian History, A Distinct Viewpoint, metis-history.info/metis.aspx, www).
John Wesley noted that “the Indians had exceedingly few diseases; their medicines are quick and generally infallible”. Furthermore, “Cotton Mathers wrote, Indian healers produce many cures that are truly stupendous” (Canadian History, a Distinct Viewpoint, www). “The Mediwiwin, native physicians, were very effective in their treatments of any ills. But the European diseases, they had no remedy for.”
Check back soon! Cheryl will be covering reserves and Indian lands in her next article.
Andreas. History of St. Clair County, Michigan. University of Michigan, 1884. Quod.lib.umich.edu
Armstrong, Virginia Irving. I Have Spoken: Indian Oratory. Swallow Press, 1971. ISBN – 10: 0804005303, 13: 978-0804005302
Askin, John. Papers Vol. 1, 1747-1795, 1928; Vol. 2, 1796-1820, 1931, includes Father Dennison, Biographies of Early Detroit and Canada. Milo Quaife/Burton Historical Collection.
Bald, Clever. Michigan in Four Centuries. Brown, 1954. www
Banai, Edward Benton. The Seven Fires, The Mishomis Book, and The Voice of the Ojibway. UMN Press, 1988. 9780816673827
Barnes, John T., honorary Chippewa Chief. Lambton, 1967.
Beardslee, Lois. The Modern Indian. 1995.
Belfy, Phil. Three Fires Unity: The Anishinabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands. University of Nebraska Press, 2011.
Benz, Williamson, and Ekdahl. Diba Jimooyung, Telling Our Story: A History of the Saginaw Ojibwe Anishinabek. Saginaw Chippewa, Mt. Pleasant, MI: Ziibiwing Cultural Society, 2005. 978-0-9672331-1-6
Berkhoffer, Robert F., Jr. The White Man’s Indian. NY: Vintage Books, Random House, 1979.
Blackbird, Andrew. The History of the Ojibwe Indian. www
Bonhomme, Draper. Papers. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Brakeman, Nancy. Remembrances of Mrs. Peter Brakeman. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Burton Historical Library. Detroit, Michigan.
Burton, Clarence. 1896, Cadillac Village or Detroit under Cadillac, 1853-1932. Hathi Trust. Burton, Clarence. Beginnings of Michigan, Hathi Trust, and the City of Detroit, 1701-1922. S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1922. www
Cameron, Herman E. Memorial Foundation, “Kah Wam Da Meh” (“We See Each Other”). 1988. Jean Frazier.
Chaput Collection, Papers, Indian Place Names, Michigan Archives, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI.
Cleland, Charles E. Rites of Conquest. University of Michigan Press, 1992.
Clifton, James A., George L. Cornell, and James McClurken. People of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway of Michigan. Grand Rapids Intertribal Council, 1986.
Copeway, George (John). The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibwa Nation, 1850. Indian Life and Indian History, 1860. www
Crawford, Kim. The Daring Trader: Jacob Smith in the Michigan Territory 1802-1825. Michigan State University Press, 2012.
Densmore, Francis. Chippewa Customs. 1979.
Deur, Nishnawbe. 1981.
Diba Jimoojung, Telling Our Story: A History of the Saginaw Ojibwe Anishinabek, Mtl. Pleasant, MI: Ziibiwing Cultural Society, 2005. 978-0-9672331-1-6
Dixson. Life at the Flats, 1999, St. Clair Memories. Mt. Clemons, MI. 586-242-2222
Eastman, Charles. The Soul of the Indian, The Indian Today and as He Was, From the Deep Woods to Civilization, and Indian Boyhood. 1902. www
Echert, Allan W. A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. Wilderness Empire, 1992. Little Brown & Co.
Eicher, Al and Dave. The Indian History of Michigan’s Thumb, The Orphan Train. Program Source. Com.
Elford, Jean Turnbull. Canada, West’s Last Frontier: A History of Lambton. Ontario: Lambton County Historical Society, 1982.
Emmert. Michigan Historical Collection, Vol. 47.
Ewing, Wallace K. Ph. D, Footprints: Stories of Native Americans in West Central Michigan,2016
Farmer, Silas. History of Detroit and Michigan, Vol 2. 1884. www
Farrand, Mrs. B.C. The Indians at Sarnia, Wyoming, Ontario, Lambton Archives.
Farrel, David. The Detroit Fur Trade, Dissertation, 1865, U of W, Milwaukee, Michigan Archives, Lansing, MI.
Flocken. Chiefs. University of Minnesota, 2013. www
Fowle. “Sault Ste. Marie and Michigan”. G.P. Putnam ‘s and Sons, 1925. www
Frazier, Jean. Kah Wam Da Heh. Herman E. Cameron Foundation, 1988.
Fuller, George N. Historic Michigan: Land of the Great Lakes, 1917-1941, Vol. 1. MPHC, MHC, 1944, National Historic Assoc., 1924. Dayton, OH: University of Michigan. www
Fuller, George N. Local History and Personal Sketches of St. Clair and Shiawassee Counties; Historic Michigan, 1873; A Centennial History of the State and Its People, 1939. The Lewis Publishing Co. Hathi Trust. Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. www
Greaux, Joe. Woodland Metis Ojibwe Peace Chief. 2014 Author Interview.
Hatt, Richards. The Sanilac Petroglyphs. Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1958. Bulletin No. 36. Papworth, Butterfield/Port Sanilac Museum.
Hebner, Marilyn and Diana. SCCFHG, MIGC, Immigration Papers.
Helbig, Althea K. Nanabozhoo, Giver of Life. Brighton, MI: Green Oak Press, 1987. 0931600065/9780931600067
Hennepin, Louis. A New Discovery. Description of Louisiana, 1683. www
Hinsdale, Wilbert B. The Archaeological Atlas of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library, 1928. www
Hodgins, Bruce W. Canoeing Fur Trade, 1994. Toronto Heritage. www
Hodgins. Ontario Genealogical Society.
Hotchkiss, George W. History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest. 1898. SCC Library, Michigan Room.
Howard, Nancy. Diary, 1813. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library.
Hudgins. Detroit Papers. Wayne University.
Hudgins. The Biodiversity Atlas of Lake Huron to Lake Erie. EPA, 2002. www
Jenks and Clark Papers, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Jenks, William L. St. Clair County Centennial and Homecoming Celebration. 1921. www
Jenks, William L. The History of St. Clair County, Michigan: Biographical Memoirs of St. Clair County. Vol. 2. Chicago and NY: University of Michigan, The Lewis Publishing Co., 1912. quod.lib.umich.edu
Jenness. Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwe Children. 1954. www
Johnson, Ida A. The Michigan Fur Trade. Lansing MI Historical Commission, 1919.
Johnston, A.J. Lambton County Place Names. Sarnia, ON: Lambton County Council, 1925. Revised 1942, 2nd Edition. Wyoming, ON: Lambton Archives, 2008.
Jones, Rev. Peter. The History of the Ojibwe Indians. 1861. www
Kellogg, Louise P. “Early Narratives of the Northwest, 1634-1699”. 1897. NY: Barnes and Noble, 1953. www
Kienietz. Traditional Ojibwa Religion. Library of Michigan.
Lahonton, Louis A. “Voyages to New France”. 1703. www; “Voyages to North America II” with Thwaites. www; and “Travels Through Louisiana”. www
Lambton Archives. Wyoming, Ontario.
Landon, Fred. Lake Huron, 1944. Bobbs-Merrill Co., Quaife, WHS.
Lanman, Charles. The Red Book of Michigan 1819-1895, 1855. E. B. Smith & Co. Philip Solomons, 1871. quod.lib.umich.edu
Laubin, Reginald and Gladys. The Indian Tipi. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
Lauriston, Victor. Lambton’s 100 Years, 1849-1949. Beers Book, 1906. Our Roots, 2006. U of Calgary.
Levy-Bruhl, Lucien. How Natives Think. Lilian A. Clare. 1910, 1927. 9781614277866
Lewis, Kenneth E. West to Far Michigan. MSU Press, 2002.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. The New Press, 1995, 2007. 9780743296281
Lossing, Benton J. Pictorial Field Book of the War of 1812. 1869/Bill Carr, 2001, Free Pages History, Roots Web, Ancestry.com
Lowrie and Clark. American State Papers and Military Affairs. 1832.
Marantette Papers, Fur Trade, Michigan Archives.
Mason. Culture. 1997.
Mayhew, Eugene J. Fort Sinclair: The British Roots of St. Clair, Michigan. St. Clair Historical Commission, 2003.
McKenny. Native Advocate. 1959.
Means, Russell. Where White Men Fear to Tread. St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
Methodist Ministry in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI, Michigan Archives, Lansing, MI.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection. www
Mitts, Dorothy Marie. That Noble Country: The Romance of the St. Clair River Region. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Co., 1968. Dorothy Mitts was a newspaper columnist for the Port Huron Times Herald in the mid-1900s. Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library
MOHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History
Moore, Charles. History of Michigan, Vol. 4. The Lewis Publishing Co., 1915. www
MPHC, 1890, Annual Meeting, Granny Rodd, Harrington. Methodist Ministry in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI
MPHC, Vol. 1, O.C. Thompson, Early St. Clair County History.
MPHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History.
MPHC, Vol. 4, Mack and Miller Distillery, Harsens Island. “Recollections of Aura Stewart”, 1881, pg. 346.
MPHC, Vol. 6, 1883, Autobiography of Eber Ward.
MPHC, Vol. 8, Wm. T. Mitchell, Early St. Clair County History.
MPHC, Vol. 11, 1887, Wm. L. Bancroft, Duperon Baby, Slavery.
MPHC, Vol. 17, 1793, Friends Micellany, Gage, Trade, 1762, Early History of St. Clair County, Mrs. B.C. Farrand.
Vol. 20, List of Indian Locations and Numbers.
Vol. 26, Treaty of Saginaw, 1817, 1819. Enos Goodrich, 1896, Early Detroit.
Vol. 28, Calvin J. Thorpe, Trade, Harrington, D.C. Walker, Northern Slavery.
Vol. 29, 1899, Jane M. Kinney, Clyde Twp.
Vol. 38, Emigration.
Vol. 47, Prescott, Emmert, Religion, Williams, Disease.
Vol. 52, David Farrel, Settlement along the Detroit Frontier, 1860-1796.
Methodist Ministries in Michigan, Dorothy Reuter, 1993, Library of Michigan, Lansing, Michigan. www
Munson, John. Michigan Historical Commission, British History, MI Room, St. Clair County Library, Port Huron, MI.
Nearing, Scott. The Maple Sugar Book. 1950. 9781890132637. Chelsea Green, 2000.
Nelson, Larry L. A Man of Distinction Among Them, Alexander McKee. Kent State UP, 1999.
Niehardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks, 1932. State University of New York Press, 2008.
Orange, Patricia. Lambton County, Ontario Ojibwe History. Wyoming, ON: Lambton Archives, 1975.
Parkins, Almon E. The Historical Geography of Detroit, 1879 – 1940. Lansing MI Historical Commission, 1918. www
Parkman. The Conspiracy of Pontiac. 1763. www
Plain, Alymer N. History of Sarnia Reserve. 1950, Lambton Archives.
Plain, Aylmer N. Osarkodawa in Retrospect, 1975. Sarnia Reserve and Ojibwe History. G. Smith.
Plain, David D. The Plains of Aamjiwnaang: Our History. Trafford Publishing, 2007.
Plain, David. 1300 Moons. Trafford Publishing, 2011.
Plain, David. From Quisconson to Caughnowaga. Trafford Publishing, 2015.
Plain, Nicholas. Sarnia Reserve History of, and History of the Chippewa of Sarnia. 1950, 1951.
Playter, George F. The History of Methodism in Canada. Canadian Methodist Historical Society, 1862. www
Prescott, William. A History of Michigan Methodism, The Father Still Speaks, Worldcat. 1941. www
Quimby. Culture. 1960.
Reid, Joyce. Papers. Deckerville, MI: 2014. (Joyce has devoted her life to education in the spiritual, music, and Indian history. She has received many honors for her work. She has hosted an annual Indian Day in Deckerville for 30 years, never forgetting her own heritage once she found that she had Native blood as a young woman.)
River, Charles. The Chippewa Native American Tribes: The History and Culture of. Editor. 2014.
Roufs, Chiefs, Culture, 2006, U. O. Oklahoma.
Schenk, Theresa M. The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar: The Sociopolitical Organization of the Lake Superior Ojibwe, 1640-1855. Garland Pub. Inc., 1997.
Schmaltz, Peter S. The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario. University of Toronto Press, 1991.
Schoolcraft, Henry. 30 Years among the Indians, 1848, 1851, Travels in Minnesota and Wisc. 1821. www
Smith, Donald B. and Rogers, Edward S. Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations. Dundurn, 1994/2012.
Smith, Donald B. Kahkewaquonaby, Peter Jones, “Sacred Feathers” (Sacred Waving Feathers). University of Toronto. www
Smith, Donald B. Missisauga Portraits: Ojibwe Voices from Nineteenth Century Canada. University of Toronto, 2013. www
Sonnenberg, Lemke, and John M. O’Shea. “Caribou Hunting in the Upper Great Lakes”. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology Memoir 57, Anthropological Archaeology.
Speck, Gordon. Breeds and Halfbreeds. C. N. Potter, 1969. ASIN BOOR1ZLG8M
Spencer, Lynn. History of Petroglyph Park. M.913.87 – Michigan Printing Co., Bad Axe, MI/Port Sanilac Museum.
Stanley, Margueritte. From Whence We Came. 1977. Port Huron Library.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. Oxford, 1992. 0 – 19 507581 – 1, 0 – 19 – 508557 – 4, PBK
Tanner, Helen H. and Voegelin, Ermine W. Indians of Northern Ohio and Southeastern Michigan: An ethnohistorical report (American Indian Ethnohistory: North Central and North Eastern). Garland Publishing, 1975. Copyright Creative Commons.
Tanner, Helen H. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Newberry Library, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
Tanner, Helen H. The Chippewa of Lower Michigan.
Tanner, Helen H. The Ojibwe. Newberry Library: Chelsea House Publishers, NY, Philadelphia, 1992.
The Clark Library of Western History, CMU, Mt. Pleasant, MI.
The History of Macomb County, Michigan. www
The History of Saginaw County, Michigan. www
The History of Warren, Michigan. www
The History of Wayne County, Michigan. www
The Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County. www
The Indians at Sarnia. Mrs. B. C. Farrand, Wyoming, Ontario: Lambton Archives.
The Library of Michigan, Lansing, MI.
Thom, James A. Panther in the Sky. NY: Ballantine Books, 1989.
Thom, James A. Long Knife. NY: Ballantine Books, 1979.
Tunkashila, Gerald H. Indian Mythology and History. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
Utley, Henry M. Michigan as a Province, Territory and State. Vol. 4. 1906. www
Vecsey, Christopher. Traditional Ojibwe Religion. www
Warner, Robert. Economic and History Report on Royce Area 66.
Warren, William W. History of the Ojibwe People. 1885. www
We See Each Other. Frazier/Herman Cameron Foundation.
Western Historical Co. The History of St. Clair County, Michigan. www
Wilson, William E. Shooting Star – The Story of Tecumseh. NY: J.J. Little and Ives Co., 1942.
Woolworth, Dearborn Historical Society, Detroit Indians, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Library.
Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States, 1492-Present. 20th Anniversary Edition. Harper Collins, 1999.
African Holocaust, Indian Holocaust, Wole Soyika, www
Andreas, History of St. Clair County, MI. 1884, www
Angel Fire, Native History, www
Archaeological Atlas of Michigan, Hindsdale, 1928, University of Michigan www
Bureau of Indian Affairs Apology to Native Americans, Tuhtonka, World Future Feed, www
Blackwater River People, www
Black Elk, www
Bodewatomi History and Culture, www
Burton, Clarence, Beginnings of Michigan, Cadillac, www
Canadian Indian History, www
Cannon, Mounds, 1973, www
Chippewa History, E How, www
City Data, Michigan History, Indian Allies, www
Constantin, Phil, Ojibwe Calendar, www
Davis, Thomas J., African, Indian Americans, Arizona State University, www
Detroit Historical Society, 1872, Slavery in the Early 1800s, Detroit Michigan, J.S. Girardin, www
Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, www
Flocken, University of Minnesota, 2013, Chiefs, www
From the Deep Woods to Civilization, The Soul of the Indian, Charles Eastman, www
Genealogy Trails, Fuller, Slavery, www
Gulewitsch, Victor, 1995, Chippewa of Kettle and Stoney Point, Historical Claims Commission Research Office, www
Hathi Trust, wonderful source of historical writings, www
Hennepin, A New Discovery, Description of Louisiana, 1683, www
Historic Saugeen Metis, Patsy McArthur/B.C. Farrand, Upper Detroit to Saugeen, Lower Lake Huron’s Metis and Trade, Upper Region of the Detroit River, Lake Huron Watersheds, Bruce Peninsula, Inverhuron Learning Center, Southampton, Ontario, 2013, www
History of Canada and Canada West, www
History of Canadian Indians, 1763-1840, Marionopolis College, www
History of Macomb County, Michigan, www
History of Methodism in Canada, George Frederick Playter, 1862, www
History of Michigan, www
History of the Ojibwe Indians, Andrew Blackbird, www
History of the Ojibwe Indians, Rev. Peter Jones, 1861, www
History of Saginaw County, MI, www
History of St. Clair County, MI, Western Historical Co., www
History of Warren, MI, www
History of Wayne County, MI, www
Hodgins, Bruce W., Canoeing Fur Trade, 1994, Toronto Heritage, www
Hudgins, Wayne University, Detroit, Papers, www
Indian Affairs: Law and Treaties, Oklahoma State University, OSU, www
Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County, MI, www
Indian Boyhood, Charles Eastman, www
Indian History Timeline, www
Indian Law, www
Indians. Org. Culture, www
Ipperwash Commission of Inquiry historical background, Attngen.jus.gov.on.ca
Isabella County, MI, Gen. Web, www
Jenks, A. E., Wild Rice Gatherers, 1900, www
Jenks, Wm. L., History of St. Clair County, MI, 1912, Biographical Memoirs of St. Clair County, Vol. 2, St. Clair County Centennial and Homecoming Celebration, 1921, www
Jews and African History, Halle, Selassie, www
Kugel, 1998, Treaties, www
Lahonton, Louis Armand, De Lom D’Arce, Baron De La Honton, Voyages to New France, 1703, Voyages to North America II/Thwaites, Travels through Louisiana, www
Lanman, History of MI from Its Earliest Colonization, www
Lejeunesse, E. J., The Windsor Border Region: Canada’s Southernmost Frontier, www
Lexington MI history, www
Liberty Law Site, www
Lincoln Quotes, www
Little Turtle, Canada History, www
Losser, A., Ojibwe Culture, www
Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, www
Macomb, William, Memoir, www
McArthur, Patsy and Farrand, B.C. Historic Saugeen Metis. Southampton, ON: Inverhuron Learning Center, 2013. www
Metis History Timeline, Canadian History, a Distinct Viewpoint, www
Metis History, www
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection, MPHC, Vol. 40, www
Mills, James Cooke, History of the Saginaw Chippewa, 1918, www
Missisauga Eagle Tribe, www
Moore, Charles, History of MI, Vol. 4, The Lewis Publishing Co., 1915, www
MSU, MSU Libraries, Map Library, Scanned Maps of MI, www
Mystic Detroit, Patriot War, www
Native American Apology, Dr. Mary Harmar, Ontario Canada, www
Native Tec. Pierre Girard, www
Ojibwe Culture, Kevin Callahan, UMN, www
Ojibwe History, Migration to the Great Lakes, www
Ojibwe Indian History Timeline, www
Ojibwe Whoa, , www
Ontario Encyclopedia, www
Papal Bulls, www
Parkins, Almon Ernest, The Historical Geography of Detroit, 1918, www
Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 1763, www
Porterfield, Kay, 10 Lies about Indigenous Science, www
Prescott, Wm., Native Religion, 1941, Worldcat, www
Project Gutenberg, the American Indian, Alexander Henry, and Henry Schoolcraft, www
Sarnia, Wikipedia, www
Schoolcraft, Henry, 30 Years among the Indians, 1848, 1851, Travels in Minnesota and Wisc., 1821, www
Smith, Donald B., Missisauga Portraits: Ojibwe Voices from Nineteenth Century Canada, 2013, U.O. Toronto, www
Students on Site, Native American Missions and Schools, www
Sturdevant, Treaties, 1978, www
The Canadian Truth Commission Report, www
The History of County Creation, CMU, excellent site, www
The History of the County of Middlesex, Canada, Godspeed Publishing, 1889, www
The Indian and Pioneer History of Saginaw County, www
The Indian Today and as He Was, Charles Eastman, www
The Lies about when Slavery Ended, Denise Oliver Velez, 2012, www
The Pokagon Bodewadmi, Pottawatomi, www
The Soul of the Indian, Charles Eastman, www
The Truth about Slavery, www
The Westbrooks Ontario, www
The Writings of Cadillac, www
Tinker, George, Osage School of Theology, www
Tolatsga, Tolatsga.org, Coral Painter Magazine, www, First Nations Site map, First Nations Histories, Lee Stultzman, Tolatsga.org
Travers, Karen Jean, Dissertation, Seeing with Two Eyes, Colonial Policy, The Huron Tract and Change 1780-1863, York University, 2015, Toronto, Canada
Treaty Texts, Upper Canada Land Surrenders, www
Turtle Nation Indians, www
Tutonka, World Future Feed, www
University of Oklahoma, Indian Affairs Law and Treaties, www
Upper Canada History, Early Canadian History Narrative, www
Vecsey, Christopher, Traditional Ojibwe Religion, www
War Bounty Lands, Ancestry, www
Western Historical Society, 1883, French History, Northwest and Indian History, www
When were Blacks Truly Freed from Slavery, Hillary Crosby, www
Whoa, dickshovel.com site map, First Nations Histories, Lee Stultzman, www
Wisconsin State Historical Society, Great Lakes Indian History, www
Wisconsin State Historical Society, Vol. 6, The Northwest 1817, Storrow Letters, www
WSHS, Collection of, Vol. 10, Blackhawk, www
Blue Water Indian Pow Wow, 1995, booklet
Friends of the St. Clair River Watershed, Brochure
Harpers Magazine, Vol. 98, Pokagon, Simon, The massacre of Fort Dearborn at Chicago, 1899, www
Marine City Gazette, 1876, Western Historical Co., Aura Stewart, Early St. Clair County
Michigan Archeology, Vol. 3, 1957, Richard A. Pohrt, War Club
North American Review, 1830, Jackson Treaties
Sarnia Observer, Shirley Brownlee, 1857, Lumbering, Barnes, Ojibwe, 1967
Saturday Evening Post, 1947, Robert Murphy, Mother Rodd
The Detroit News Tribune, 1896, Dixon, Mother Rodd
The Penny Magazine, April 29, 1837, Ontario, Canada
The Smithsonian, 2014, Amanda Foreman, The Birth of American Freedom and the Founding of the Union
This book came about after a visit to the library where I could not find local Indian History. I grew up in the St. Clair and Black River area of Michigan, fishing on all the area waters with my father and brothers. I loved books, libraries, horses and puzzles; I was not a tech person. I love to cook, garden, travel, and camp. I was determined to find and share the truth. This has been a difficult journey in every way. I give you, the reader, the truth and blessings I also reaped. Cheryl Morgan
Cheryl Morgan lives near Port Huron, Michigan with her husband Tom and dog Fred.
Don’t forget to “like ” us on Facebook!
Disclaimer: Blue Water Healthy Living is an online magazine located in Port Huron, Michigan. Our purpose is to promote healthy living by showcasing the Blue Water Area, its people, issues and surroundings. This online magazine is devoted to providing healthy living related stories, local happenings, and commentary. Often inspiring and uplifting, our stories come from our heart and soul to promote the enjoyment of a more fulfilling Blue Water Area lifestyle. The material on this web site is provided for informational and amusement purposes only and is not to be confused with any medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the opinions and values of Blue Water Healthy Living.