Although it may seem like Ottissippi is jumping out of order, rest assured it is for a good purpose. Cheryl has carefully laid out the order of the next few chapters of Ottissippi so that readers will learn of the history before exploring further into Chapters 2 and 5. Thank you, Cheryl, for your dedication and in-depth research into the lives of our local Native history.
By Cheryl Morgan
OTTISSIPPI is written by local author – Cheryl Morgan. It is the New Native History and culture of Southeast Michigan and beyond that has been untold. It was inaccessible due to the complexity of the many tribes, governments, states, and boundaries. The history was hidden and scattered everywhere due to time and the many changes of names of waterways, peoples and places. It is the result of 4 years of intense groundbreaking research that clarifies and reveals what happened here and in the Northwest Territory. Now available in one volume! Non-fiction 643 pages.
BWHL will be sharing excerpts from OTTISSIPPI with the readers every other week. The book is available on Amazon.com/ottissippi.
It is available as an eBook with a searchable Table of Contents and in Print – paperback.
Part II: Forts, Indian Captives and American Biography
Forts were used as trading houses at the Indian fishing sites. The Indians gathered there seasonally to trade. The Indians believed them to be the first steps to enslave them and invade their properties.
- Dole, a trader, said, “It is no crime to cheat and gull an Indian. There are a thousand opportunities present to take advantage of their ignorance. I employ rum”.
Fort Washington was at Cincinnati, Ohio.
FORT ST. JOSEPH – FORT DETROIT OR FORT DULUTH
Fort St. Joseph was built in 1686 at the foot of Lake Huron near the rapids by the Frenchman Duluth and the coureurs des bois. Sieur Daniel Graysolon Du Luth, or Du Lhut, in 1686, using his own funds to establish a trading post. He was also a French military official who used the fort to gather men for military excursions. The fort was used by Allied Indians to retreat while hunting or marching against Iroquois. DuLuth was also called Delude; he was a cousin of Hennepin, the explorer priest (Jenks).
Farming was commenced within the fort grounds, planting “Turkey Wheat” (Indian corn). The harvest was winter sustenance.
The first priest was Father Claude Aveneau, a Jesuit, who was a resident for one winter.
Lahonton first commanded the post for two years and burned it upon transfer to the Fort at Mackinac in 1688.
“He, Duluth, chose a spot where the St. Clair River was the narrowest and established Fort St. Joseph. That site is located, in what is now, Pine Grove Park in downtown Port Huron, Michigan” (David Plain, “From Quisconsin to Caughnowaga”)
“This Fort St. Joseph and the Fort St. Joseph on the river of the same name in Southwest Michigan are the oldest forts in the Lower Peninsula. They preceded Fort Ponchetrain built at Detroit River by Lamotte Cadillac by 15 years.
De Nonvile, governor general of Canada after Frontenac, says, “It was maintained eight years and exercised a powerful influence on the English. Possibly it was in use as a trading post before use as a military establishment” (Western Historical Co., History of SCC, MI).
There were four nations belonging to his post: the Ojibwe, Pottawatomi, Ottawa, and Huron.
Fort Duluth was soon destroyed. Fort Niagra had been abandoned to the Iroquois and, as a precaution, Baron Lahonton burned the fort and removed the garrison to Machinac in August of 1688, under order of Marquis De Deononville, the governor general of Canada (Lanman, 1839, pg. 36, History of MI).
“Mons. De Beauvois was lieutenant of Fort St. Joseph on the Strait (the Detroit) between Lake Huron and Erie. The Shawnees and Miami’s visited the post” (Schoolcraft).
Baron De Lahonton’s map and description places the fort on the American shore (La Honton, 1903 pg. 138-139). It has traditionally been placed by historians at the upper end of the Strait, near the site of later Fort Gratiot. Henri De Tonti states that the fort was at the head of the Strait (DeLanglez, 1944 pg. 279
The Franquelin map of 1688 locates the fort at the head of the Strait on the Canadian shore. Franquelin is said to have obtained firsthand information from Perrot, Du Luth, and Tonti. (Kellogg, 1925 pg. 236-237).
The British also had a St. Joseph Trading Post on Drummond Island. It was evacuated to the Americans in 1828. The 160 voyageurs, 30 Regular British, 75 families, and half-breeds – Metis – from Quebec for the Northwest Fur Co. migrated to Penetanguishene in Simcoe County, Ontario.
DuLuth went on to greatness as a trader, Indian agent, and government military officer. See “Duluth” in “Chapter 4: Explorers and Missionaries”.
From this point, some of the French settlers stayed, living with the Indians. Sawmills and fisheries began.
British Fort Sinclair was built after the Pontiac uprising in 1764, at the mouth of the Pine River in present St. Clair City. Fort Sinclair was built by British Officer Patrick Sinclair in 1764. Sinclair had bought land from the Indians for the fort and for himself. He built houses and barns and planted crops. Sinclair built a large military and trading post on the Pine River. This was a regular fortification, consisting of earthworks, mounting artillery with a stockade, rally post, etc. in the most complete order; and he occupied it for about seventeen years, acquiring from the Natives a title to about 4,000 acres of land bordering the river. He was the first permanent English settler and the only one along the river until 1782, when Major Rodgers took formal possession of the country in behalf of the British Crown. Both the river and the lake had the appellation of Sinclair rather than the original one given by LaSalle and Father Hennepin (Western Historical Co.).
The grounds of the fort were along the river for two and a half miles and were two and a half miles deep. This land was bought by Meldrum and Park, along with an additional 5,000 acres. They then owned 10 miles along the St. Clair River.
Jean Baptiste Point De Sable, a free Negro mulatto, kept the Pinery at St. Clair. He went on to build the first fort at Chicago, Fort Dearborn (Adapted from Mitts, The Times Herald, As the wild Goose Flies column, SCC library, MI Room).
On the east side of the St. Clair River was the British Fort Baby.
Fort Edward at Sarnia, Ontario, a British fort, was directly across from Fort Gratiot, the American fort at the foot of Lake Huron and the St. Clair River in now Port Huron.
A letter sent to Brownville:
“Without reference to the map, a stranger is led into error from the different names given to the same body of water. Since leaving Detroit, I had been on one stream, known in its various parts as Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, the River St. Clair, and the River Huron.
Fort Gratiot is situated on the right bank of the latter, which is the rapid formed by Lake Huron in its first outlet to the water below. Its direction is from north to south, its width 800 yards, its length about a mile, and the rapidity of the current nearly five miles an hour. With Fort Gratiot, you are already acquainted. The site of it is within three hundred yards of the lake, on a slight eminence about 150 yards distant from the water’s edge; so that the guns of a well-constructed work may command the Strait and its opposite bank which, for more than the range of common shot, is elevated by a few feet above the water.”
Samuel Storrow’s Letter to Major Brown (1817) (The Northwest in 1817, State Historical Society of Wisc. 6:154):
“I embarked in a barge from Detroit to proceed to the River and Lake St. Clair to Fort Gratiot. The country bordering the two waters I found level and fertile. It is scantily peopled by French Canadians who reside on the margin and make no improvements in the interior. The small surplus of their produce is purchased by vessels coasting between the Lakes. In the rear settlements is a growth of substantial timber and an abundant supply of natural grass. At the upper parts of the river, the soil meliorates; the banks are high and often picturesque.
Considering the River Huron as the natural avenue from the Upper to the Lower Lakes, it is surprising that no efforts were made to ensure the command of it previously to the year 1814, being held by the American Government since 1796. To ourselves, under the existing mode of communicating with the, North Western Frontier, it affords the only means of commercial or military conveyance. The position is less important towards any White neighbor than towards the Indians. To them it is the only thoroughfare. The possession of it engenders new dependence during peace and might become a most important barrier against invasion. Had the pass been defended in 1812, few would have gone beyond it to the siege of Detroit.
Within the range of the guns of the fort, there is a fishery which for many years, perhaps ages, has given sustenance to the tribes inhabiting the lower parts of Lake Huron. From this and other causes they have ascribed to it a moral value even beyond its due, and rarely pass without making it, as much from superstition as convenience, a resting place on their way below” (Storrow).
Fort Gratiot was built in 1814 after the War of 1812. In 1817 and 1818, the fort was garrisoned by Maine State troops, attracted by the pineries of the vicinity, who after discharge scattered, and many located in the vicinity. Captain Charles Gratiot, U.S. Government engineer, built the fort at the foot of Lake Huron, called, the most beautiful log fort in all, of the Northwest. His men also helped build the military road to supply the fort from Detroit, now Gratiot Road and Gratiot Avenue. He went on to greatness, becoming the chief engineer of the Army Corps of Engineers. He then went to Chicago and built Fort Dearborn, teaching at West Point and later served as Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers in 1819 in Washington.
On arriving, they found the old French post occupied by a Canadian Frenchman with a small house and about two acres in cultivation. Major Forsyth took possession of the grounds and commenced the erection of a stockade and earthworks for artillery the next day.
The fort was garrisoned by a company under command of Colonel McNeil, Major Burbank, and Captain Whistler. McNeil went on to buy much of the fort grounds, called McNeil’s Tract, and who McNeil’s Creek, which flowed through north Port Huron and into Black River was named. McNeil went into real estate development with other Eastern capitalists, called the Huron Land Co.
The fort proper covered a large area, two acres, this being enclosed and was between Scott Avenue and Mansfield Street from Suffern – now Glenwood Avenue – to State Street. The northwest corner of the fort was at St. Clair Street. The fort grounds stretched from the St. Clair River at Pine Grove Park on the east to Black River on the west, it included the now Thomas Edison Inn and Parkway near the Blue Water Bridge. The fort is believed to be about 400 feet wide and 600 feet long, with two portals, one facing south and one facing the river.
There were many hills in the city near the river on Stone Street and Pine Grove Avenue. There were many mounds along the river and lake used for Indian burials in the past. See “Chapter 11: Mounds and Treaties”.
A strong bulwark of earth was constructed of logs laid up to reinforce the east, facing the St. Clair River. From this raised position was a clear shot to the other shore, and the Lake and River to the British Fort there, Fort Edward. The canon, firing a 6 pound, shot, was used for salutes. The Americans feared a British invasion, this never happened.
An earth embankment surrounded the North, South, and West sides of the fort, which was surrounded by a large ditch. The fort was about 1,000 feet south of Lake Huron on an embankment. The parade grounds included Pine Gove Park and the cemetery grounds. The fort had 40 acres of gardens and acreages of grain and beans. This land was north of the fort and west to Black River.
The banks of the River St. Clair – Huron – at Fort Gratiot were 30 to 40 feet high and near perpendicular.
The fort was garrisoned in 1821. Abandoned in 1822, it was repaired and used for an Indian school of the Indian Department of the Presbyterian Missionaries Board. Hart and Hudson were the teachers, a few white children also attended. Hart and Hudson moved to Sault Ste. Marie in 1825. Some of the Indian families went with them, being attached to the teachers.
The fort was rebuilt and back in use in 1828. It was regarrisoned as a prevention of large foreign goods being brought in without paying duties and Indian trouble in the West. Orders came to palisade the fort and raise a flagpole. Soldiers were sent to the woods for logs, each log was 30 feet long when trimmed. Lookers found trees for the flagstaff, sufficient for a 77-foot mainmast and a 60-foot topmast. It took 61 men to carry it to the garrison. It was set about 15 feet into the ground and soared 122 feet above ground. The flag was of 24 stars and 15 stripes.
The fort was abandoned in 1831 and used sporadically by the military until 1879. The fort was the life of the little village outpost at what is now Port Huron.
“Judge Bunce was instrumental in building the first wagon road in the district, the road from Bunce’s place to the fort. Bunce brought in supplies to the fort from the Detroit area. In its glory, the fort was under strict military discipline. The area of the fort grounds was 477.5 acres” (W.L. Jenks, History of St. Clair County, 1912).
“At the foot of Lake Huron stands Fort Gratiot. This battery commands the entrance into the Upper Lakes and would be of great military importance in case of war, in furnishing a bulwark against the encroachments of the savages and controlling the commerce of these waters.
The advantages of this position as a trading and military establishment were fully appreciated from an early period, and here the early French traders had erected a fort, which was subsequently occupied by the French Government, by the name of St. Joseph. The present fort consisting of a stockade, magazine, and two barracks” (History of MI, 1839, James H. Lanman, pg. 267).
When the fort grew, there was a hospital, commissary, and large field for crops. A barn, parade grounds, officer quarters, guardhouse, ice house, laundry, bakery, blacksmith shop, and carpentry shop.
Some time was spent on military drills. Much of the time was spent, in non-military activities: carpentry, agriculture, wood cutting for fuel or salvaging ship remains, and hunting and fishing.
Fort Gratiot was a recruiting center for many wars, including the Patriot War, Black Hawks War, the Mexican War, and the Civil War. It was rebuilt and remodeled as needed. Fort Gratiot was defended by one field piece, transported by a small sloop in 1814 (Western Historical Co.).
Colonel George Croghan, with 600 American soldiers and 500 Ohio militia, rendezvoused at Fort Gratiot to reclaim Fort Mackinac after the 1812 defeat to the British. Soon after this, several communities sprung up in the neighborhood, of Fort Gratiot.
Under Lieutenant Samuel P. Heintzelman and Major Alex Thompson in 1828, a suitable “stick” was placed for the fort’s flagstaff. It was recorded as “The tallest and handsomest in the United States”. Lt. Heitzelman later became a major general during the Civil War.
The fort’s population varied from about 80 to 200 men.
The soldiers’ pay in 1816 was $5.00 per month for a private; musicians $6.00 per month; corporals $7.00 per month; and sergeants $8.00 per month. Each man received a daily ration of one and a half pounds of beef or three-quarter pounds of pork, 18 ounces of bread or flour, and one gul (1/4 pint) of rum, whiskey, or brandy.
The soldiers visited the numerous saloons on Butler Street – Grand River Avenue – to drink and gamble. Fights were common among the soldiers, sailors, and river men working in the Lumber Industry. In 1869, there was a mammoth brawl between soldiers and citizens, known as The Riot.
The Blackhawk War brought many to the fort on their way to Chicago in 1832.
The Cholera Epidemic of 1832 raging in Detroit, and General Scott and his West Point cadets, 9 military companies, were enroute on the steamer Henry Clay to the Black Hawk War near Chicago. The cholera suddenly attacked, they landed the troops as the men were taken ill on board of their transport vessel. These men were taken off and the dead buried nearby at Cholera Point. Many died nearby along the banks of the St. Clair River. Under panic to escape the scourge and seeking help, the men dispersed, wandering for miles along the countryside, dying along the roadside, the fort inadequate for such a number. Most townspeople ignored the men staying locked in their homes. A few tried to relieve the suffering. Some handing our coffee through windows were rewarded for their compassion.
They were first buried in the old Fort Cemetery, near where Thomas Edison’s boyhood home was. In 1884, the remains were moved and buried in Lakeside Cemetery, many of the 184 were unnamed graves. There is a marker on the south entrance to Lakeside Cemetery honoring these men; the monument was erected by the U.S. Congress.
The site where they were let off the ship was called Cholera Pointe, which is now the site of the City of Port Huron Water Works at the southeast corner of Pine Grove Park, Port Huron. There was at the time a point of land jutting out into the river.
The fort was abandoned in 1837. During the Patriot War, a detachment of the Brady Guards from Detroit came and removed the military supplies of ammunition to Detroit, remaining there until all danger was gone.
Dr. Charles W. Keeny was fort physician in 1844, followed by Dr. C. S. Tripler.
From 1846 to 1848, the fort was unoccupied, the men were sent to the Mexican War. From 1848 to 1852, the fort was repaired and garrisoned. From 1853 to 1861, the fort was not garrisoned. From 1852 to 1866, the fort was mostly unoccupied but was used as a recruiting center for the Civil War with several regiments organized.
In 1854, Mrs. Montgomery, widowed, was in charge, of the fort, and quite capable, going on to Washington.
Governor Cass was a frequent visitor on his many journeys to the Northern Lakes. On one visit, the fort officers were absent, and upon passing the Black River, they met a boat with a few soldiers under Lieutenant Webb returning with a load of watermelons obtained up Black River. Webb later became U.S. Minister to Brazil and was a friend of Napoleon, the French explorer, who persuaded the French removal of troops from Mexico.
The only town clocks for many years were the morning gun at Revile, the evening gun, the military music of “Strike your Tents”, the bugler calls, the trumpeter, and the timed cannon.
In 1870, some of the reserve was sold. From 1874 to 1878, the fort was occupied most of the time. It was closed in 1878 and abandoned in 1879. In 1880 and 1881, the last of the reserve was sold at auction.
A splendid scale model replication of the fort as it was before 1879 is on display at the Port Huron Museum of Arts and History. It was built by Allen T. Carlisle.
The Old Fort! It has sheltered in its time many a gallant soldier and been the home of men whose names became eminent in the nation’s history. Dear old memories cluster around it. Within its walls many a hopeful career began, and brave young hearts swelled with the first glory of martial life.
In recent years, it has served as a pleasant station for soldiers weary of the exposure to danger of life on the Western Frontier. The time came when its usefulness was over (Western Historical Co., 1883).
Many distinguished men served at Fort Gratiot, including Robert E. Lee (not the famous General), Captain William Whistler, uncle of American Painter James Abbott McNeil Whistler. Captain Whistler signed the earliest report on file in 1815 in the War Department relating to the fort” (Adapted from; Mitts, As the Wild Goose Flies, The Times Herald, SCC Library, MI Room).
Dr. Zina Pilcher, a post surgeon, became well-known in medical, educational, and political arenas. He became the founder of the University of Michigan School of Medicine. Another notable post surgeon was Alfred E. Fetchet, later a resident physician in Port Huron.
The Grand Trunk Depot was on the grounds of the old fort.
The old garrison buildings were torn down, the hill cut down to the present level, and the place it stood on covered by railroad tracks (Dorothy Mitts, Fort Gratiot. Adapted from; As the Wild Goose Flies Columns, The Times Herald, SCC Library, MI Room).
In 1671, Fort Mackinaw was built at St. Ignace to block the further passage of the English and as a trading center. It also served as a refuge for the French and Indian Allies against the hostile Iroquois.
Fort Dubade was built in 1679 at Sault Ste. Marie by LaSalle. This was the first French fort built by LaSalle. LaSalle also built Fort Miami in 1679 at the mouth of the St. Joseph River, near now Niles, Michigan. The second fort built by him, after he passed up the St. Clair River in the first sailing vessel, The Griffon.
Fort Ponchetrain was built at Detroit in 1701 by Cadillac. The fort occupied four blocks of the city, and there were 70 to 80 houses in the fort. A road inside the palisades, called Chemin de Ronde, went around the village. Burton, City of Detroit, 1701 -1922, 1922
Fort Frontenac a French Fort, was built east of Detroit and the Detroit River, in now Ontario.
British Forts were across the river from Detroit, Fort Amherstburg, Fort Malden, Fort Maiden, Fort Edward, and Fort Baby were some of the nearby forts.
Fort Gratiot Lighthouse was built in 1829 and rebuilt in 1861. Fort Gratiot Lighthouse was the first lighthouse on Lake Huron, now the second oldest lighthouse in Michigan. George McDougal was the keeper of the lighthouse. He was a Lieutenant Colonel and second Aid De Camp to General Hull, Governor of Michigan, in the Legionary Corps. He then became adjutant general of the territorial militia (Western Historical Co.).
Fort St. Louis, a French post commanded by Tonti, is supposed to be located somewhere on the Detroit River (Western Historical Co., History of SCC MI).
Fort Maiden was a British fort above Malden, across from Detroit. Detroit had previously been called “Maiden”.
Many captives were freed, but many were unhappy and returned to Indian life, some being forced to abandon the wild license of the forest for the irksome restraints of society. To him who has once tasted the reckless independence, the haughty self-reliance, and the sense of irresponsible freedom which the forest life engenders, civilization thenceforth seems flat and stale. The wilderness has charms more potent in their seductive influence than all the lures of luxury and sloth. After it has cast its magic, one often finds no heart to dissolve the spell and remains a wanderer to his death. The voice of nature’s melody and power, a theatre of boundless life, brimming with pleasure (Parkman).
Often Indians took captives in raids and war. Some were sold for slaves, some were returned to their families, being bought from them. Some were adopted into their families. Some were given as gifts to friends. Some were killed and tortured in horrible ways.
When the Indians lost family members to war or other death, they often adopted another to replace the dead. Adoption was very common.
In 1778, Daniel Boone was captured as a surveyor and scout soldier by the Shawnee. They brought him to Detroit to show him off and took him to their castle at Chilicothe and adopted him into the tribe as a brother to Tecumseh. He later escaped (Metis Timeline, www).
John Tanner was taken captive from his family farm on the Ohio River and taken to Saginaw by Kiskauko (The Crow) to replace a younger brother who had died, his mother was suffering cruelly from her loss. He was an eleven-year-old boy playing behind the cabin when he was taken. Negigwodkitchmeqa, on seeing the frightened boy, began to cry and hug and kiss him. The next day, an adoption or replacement ceremony was held at the grave of the dead son. Presents were given to unrelated families of the village.
Tanner, like many captives who survived the trauma of kidnapping and mistreatment, was eventually socialized into the tribal society. Tanner, was able to function in both Indian and American Frontier society, though he never seemed successful, in either place. He developed a terrific temper and was an angry man. He was filled with hatred and revenge and spent time in jail. He shot James Schoolcraft, brother of Henry Schoolcraft, the Indian agent in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula Mines District, called “Uncle Sam’s Pet”.
Louis Campau stated, “The first Americans, as distinguished from the French farmers, were mostly prisoners taken by the Indians during the War of the Revolution and who remained after the Peace, and Englishmen who came in during the English Government and remained as Americans after the War”.
William Tucker and Richard Connor on the Clinton River (a part of Macomb County, Michigan), being in the original boundaries of St. Clair County, were Indian captives. George Cottrell, Captain William Thorn, and Mrs. Alexander Harrow on the St. Clair River were also captives.
William Tucker and his younger brother, Joseph, were taken from Virginia. Their father was killed, and they were brought to Detroit. Joseph drowned on a hunting trip with two Indians. William, at 18, escaped and returned to Virginia. He married and returned to Michigan, settling on the Clinton River. He was an important Indian interpreter.
George Cottrell was an Indian captive from the Mohawk Valley in New York. He was the only survivor of a massacre, an infant. The boy was redeemed from the Indians by a man named Cottrell. George Cottrell settled on the St. Clair River, and the town of Cottrellville took his name.
Captain Thorn was a political prisoner of the Indians. While piloting for the British, he was arrested as a spy and imprisoned, despite the 20 years he had been engaged in sailing the British ships. For a year, he was held mostly a captive of the Indians, and the charges dropped.
Mrs. Alexander Harrow was a captive from Kentucky and 15 years old, intelligent, and handsome. Captain Harrow ransomed the girl for a barrel of rum and took her for his wife.
Both Mr. and Mrs. Richard Conner were Indian prisoners. She was four when taken and brought up as a servant. When she was 17, she was bought by Richard for $200 and married him. In the contract, the Connors had promised the Indians their firstborn child. The mother was to keep the baby for one year and then was taken by the Shawnees until he was five years old, when they bought him back for $400, some time, later.
John Rutherford at 17 years old was taken prisoner when the others in his party were killed when surveying the St. Clair River off Pine Grove Park. Three were scalped, another trying to escape was decapitated, Robertson’s body was cut up, and roasted, and eaten. A great celebration commenced.
He was seized by the hair and dragged off, his head was shaved, and he was stripped of most of his clothing and made a slave. Late that night some came to Perwash’s hut and tried to seize Rutherford, “The English Dog”, but the Chief’s wife hid and protected him until he could be taken to another hut for safety. At night, he was tied hand and foot to a tree, alternately honoring him and treating him in inhumane ways. He was kept at the camp on the north side of Black River. In 1763, Chief Perwash, a Chippewa, was his captor. He was taken to Detroit to rendezvous with Pontiac’s warriors after a four-day journey to Fort Wayne, Detroit. There he planted maize, pumpkins, and other vegetables. Pontiac also claimed him as his Little White Man. While there hidden in a house by his master, Rutherford crawled to a window and witnessed the execution of eight prisoners. One was a boy about 12 years old, a drummer of the rangers. All were shot, tomahawked, or shot with an arrow, and scalped. Some of the Indians removed skin from the arms of the victims to make tobacco pouches, leaving the finger joint as tassels. The bodies were then thrown into the river to float down to the fort where the Englishmen would see their fate. Two of the prisoners were kept as adoptees.
After unbelievable adventures, Rutherford escaped on the sloop Michigan and was sent back East to his relatives.
Andrew Westbrook had two of his children taken captive. He later found them, and they were returned home.
“There must be in the Indians’ social bond something singularly captivating, and far superior to be boasted of among us; for thousands of Europeans are Indians, and we have no examples of even one of those Aborigines having from choice become Europeans” (Michel Guillaume Jean De Crevecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer/James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me).
“No European who has tasted savage life can afterwards bear to live in our societies” (Benjamin Franklin).
Thanks for reading. We will return in two weeks with Chapter 7 Part II, #2 in two weeks.
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This book came about after a visit to the library where I could not find local Indian History. I grew up in the St. Clair and Black River area of Michigan, fishing on all the area waters with my father and brothers. I loved books, libraries, horses and puzzles; I was not a tech person. I love to cook, garden, travel, and camp. I was determined to find and share the truth. This has been a difficult journey in every way. I give you, the reader, the truth and blessings I also reaped. Cheryl Morgan
Cheryl Morgan lives near Port Huron, Michigan with her husband Tom and dog Fred.
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